Click image to enlarge   The General References Page

General References are proposed to aid better understanding Byzantine Icons and to help placing the Sacred Art of Icon Painting in the appropriate historical and religious context
•  Byzantine Empire  •  Rome Catacombs
•  History of Icons and Mosaics
•  Eastern Orthodoxy  •  Iconoclasm
 •  The Great Schism  •  The 4th Crusade
•  Art Theft on a gigantic scale...
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to the left, or click to go to LINKS MENU
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 Copyright © 2002-2007 P.W. de Ruyter        Updated : 2 October 2007









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Ipatievsky Monastery, Kostroma
Ipatievsky Monastery
Kostroma
 
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     6. Roman Catholic Sites
        - Apparitions
        - Byzantine Icons     
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Attention : The chapters on Geographic and Historic data, on Ethiopian icons
and on Coptic icons, have been moved to the Medieval Byzantine Icons page.







HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY

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General World History

General World History Texts, Many of Them from a Biblical Perspective.
http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/index.html

Hellenism Network > History > Byzantine Empire
http://www.hellenism.net/eng/index.htm

Site Map, 500-1000 A.D. - A Timeline of Art History by The Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York. A highly interesting and unique piece of work representing the entire world history in graphical form, while thereby at times going into interesting detail about an art subject in a particular country or region of the world ! Quite unbelieveable but true ! http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/intro/atr/06sm.htm




The Byzantine Empire

Constantinople on the web *New!* Oct. 2007
Web-site of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/greek-resources-constantinople.asp
With Videos about Byzantium and Orthodoxy http://www.ellopos.net/blog/?p=176

Byzantium Through The Ages
- A Timeline - History - Works of Art
http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/Byzantium/time.html

A Time Line of Church History (Eastern Orthodox perspective).
This Timeline shows in parallel the 1000 years of Byzantium and the events of the early Church. http://saintignatiuschurch.org/timeline.html#timechart

A concise account of the tradition of Byzantine icon painting in Greece
http://www.artopos.org/main-en.html?icons/account-en.html&3

Byzantine Empire: A one-page summary.
http://info.goldavenue.com/Info_site/in_arts/in_civ/in_civ_byzantine.html

The Byzantine Empire - Yasou : Excellent article, outlining the Latin phase, the Justinian built Hagia Sophia Church, law, literature and arts under Justinian, expansion, iconoclasm, golden age, and decline and crusades http://www.yasou.org/byzantium/byz.htm

The Constantinople Home Page (primarily Arcitecture) - Bob Oosterhout
http://www2.arch.uiuc.edu/research/rgouster/index.html

Byzantine Monuments. In this article, authored by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, you will find particulars about the Church of Panagia of Blachernae, but what you will really find is a short history of the Byzantine Empire
http://www.patriarchate.org/ecumenical_patriarchate/chapter_4/html/blachernae.html

The Byzantine Empire - Donald MacGillivray Nicol
Excellent site with very thorough descriptions by an expert historian.
http://history-world.org/byzantine_empire.htm

The Byzantine Empire - Andreas Theodosiades, Cyprus (sxetikos)
http://www.kypros.org/Sxetikos/Library/ByzantineChurches/TheByzantineEmpire.htm

Byzantine Empire http://www.anastos.nd.edu/walking_tour_3.html >> Part of Byzantine Studies at Notre Dame University (in Notre Dame, Indiana, USA). The basis for these studies is the Library of Byzantine Civilization which Notre Dame acquired from Milton V. Anastos, one of America's greatests Byzantinists.

Explore Byzantium http://byzantium.seashell.net.nz/index.php. Good descriptions of the various phases of the Byzantine Empire, complete with maps, timelines, images.

Byzantine Empire - Links by Open Directory Project
http://dmoz.org/Society/History/By_Time_Period/Middle_Ages/Byzantine_Empire/

European Middle Ages, The Byzantine Empire
Part of World Civilizations - Richard Hooker, Washing State University
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MA/BYZ.HTM

All about Turkey, The Byzantine Empire
http://www.allaboutturkey.com/bizans.htm
==> includes list of all Emperors from Constantin I (323 - 337) to Constantin IX (1448 - 1453)


If you want to know more, or if you want to visit sites and read works with a more systematic or scientific oriented approach, the first website to visit is the one of Paul Halsall, the great specialist in everything 'Byzantium':

Byzantium: Byzantine Studies on the Internet - Paul Halsall, Fordham, NY City's Jesuit University http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/byzantium/.
It provides access to several other sites, the two of immediate interest being:

Gallery: Byzantine Images -
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/byzantium/images.html

Internet Medieval Sourcebook -
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1c.html

You can also consult Nancy Mautz' terrific resource :
--- Byzantine and Islamic Worlds - NM's Creative Impulse - Nancy B. Mautz
http://history.evansville.net/byzantiu.html#Byzantine%20History

The Byzantine Empire - Catholic Encyclopedia
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03096a.htm

Byzantine Empire http://www.crystalinks.com/byzantine.html

Maps &Timelines

A Time Line of Church History (Eastern Orthodox perspective)
http://saintignatiuschurch.org/timeline.html#timechart

Maps of Byzantium : click the link below & scroll down Dead Link
http://www.byzantina.com/cartes.htm

Gallery of Maps - 48 entries (Source: Hellenic Macedonia)
http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/HellenicMacedonia/en/topic_6_1.html

Maps of Asia Minor http://www.geocities.com/resats/maps.html

Map of Constantinople http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/constantinople1.gif

Lonely Planet http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/ >> An excellent and practical source of information on any country. For further information, consult the Texas University Maps (next link)

People and Places of the World. Photos by Galen R. Frysinger Sheboygan, Wisconsin USA http://www.galenfrysinger.com/index.htm >> pictures of places to have some idea how they look today

Russian Links >> history, maps
http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~custorr/links/russian-links.htm

Texas University Maps / Maps Source >> scroll down to US Maps & World Maps
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/map_sites/country_sites.html >> provides links to many map sources, including : Lonely Planet, MapQuest, National Geographic Society and Yahoo.

Timelines of Religious History
http://atheism.about.com/library/chronologies/blchron_ce.htm




   
ICON HISTORY, ART & ARCHITECTURE

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A one-page History of Iconography (Maria Ciucur) http://www.ciucur.com/history.html

Ancient Routes (Rodney Baird) http://www.ancientroute.com/index.htm

Archaeology in Bulgaria http://archweb-bg.cilea.it/medieval.htm

Art and History of Icons in Russia from the 10th century to date.
(Art et histoire des icônes en Russie du Xe siècle à nos jours.)
http://www.maison-russie.com/icone/ (Marie-Agnès Deriglazoff)

Art History, Resources on the web (Chris Witcombe): Part 7, Art of the Middle Ages
http://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTHmedieval.html (November 9, 2004)

Balkan Elements in Orthodox Church Painting of the Post-Byzantine Period in Central Europe.
By Waldemar Deluga, Warsaw (2001) http://archaeology.kiev.ua/journal/030501/deluga.htm

Byzantine Art http://11.1911encyclopedia.org/B/BY/BYZANTINE_ART.htm

Byzantine Art (Charles Diehl)
http://www.myriobiblos.gr/texts/english/diel.html

Brief History of Russian Icons http://www.ipl.org/div/pf/entry/48525
(IPL, Path Finder: Russian Icons, The Regents of the University of Michigan)

Byzantine and Islamic Worlds
http://history.evansville.net/byzantiu.html

Christianity and Culture (Dr. Mark G. McGowan, University of St. Michael's College in the University of Toronto) http://www.utoronto.ca/stmikes/courses/christianity/index.html
>> click 'Table of Contents' to go to the Christian Imagination Course.

Christian Art through the Ages (Dr. Rozmeri Basic)
http://www.ou.edu/class/ahi4263/byzantine.html
Images provide a clear understanding of the evolution of Christian art detailing nine (9) main periods from the Early Christian art (200-500) to the Palaiologan Period (1261-1453). Sheer beauty and great education. A truly maginificent site!

(The) Development of Western Civilization - World History
Byzantine and Islamic Worlds (Nancy B. Mautz)
http://www.history.evansville.net/byzantiu.html

Early Christian Art and Architecture ; Early, Middle, and Post-Byzantine Art and Architecture (Belmont University, Honors Program)
http://www.belmont.edu/honorsprogram/byzart2001/byzindex.html
- Many images of Christian and Byzantine Architecture
- Many icons, frescoes and mosaics. Excellent site!

History of Mosaic Art http://www.thejoyofshards.co.uk/history/index.shtml
     Mosaic History, part 2 - Decline and revival http://www.thejoyofshards.co.uk/history/modern.shtml

Icons, Their History and Construction (PDF file). Excellent site!
http://www.shipbrook.com/artsci/education/painting/IconsHistConst/icons1.pdf

Internet Guides to Byzantine and Early Christian Art http://gateway.library.uiuc.edu/arx/byzantin.htm
(University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign) ==> part of previous link

Internet Medieval Sourcebook http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html
(Paul Halsall, Fordham, New York City's Jesuit University)
==> Select the topic of interest from the menu appearing on top of page

Internet Resources, Subject Guide http://www.library.uiuc.edu/arx/resource.htm#image
(University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign) -> many different categories of links

Large Horizontal Graphical Timeline of the Byzantine Empire
http://chaos1.hypermart.net/byz/tbe.html

Medieval History - Byzantine Art and Architecture http://historymedren.about.com/cs/byzantineart/index.htm#m

NIXNET Medieval Art General References: The largest site on the internet dealing with Minor Medieval Arts. It currently has over 400 links to other medieval art sites, organized by subject area and country. http://www.medievalarthistory.com/general.html
http://www.medievalarthistory.com

Organization of the Russian Orthodox Church
     & Kievan art and architecture
http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/russ110/handout_p1_russorthchurch.htm

Orthodox Art and Architecture (John Yiannias) *New!*
http://www.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/articles/article8025.asp

Russian Art and Architecture (Bucknell University)
http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/art.html

THE CATACOMBS

There are about sixty different catacombs, but only a few can be visited: those of St. Callixtus, St. Sebastian, Priscilla, Domitilla and St. Agnes are generally open to the public.

In this section you will see early images of Jesus and images of the following catacombs : St. Callixtus (Calisto), Domitilla, Priscilla and Via Latina. Several related links are provided as well.

Following are two magnificent sites with many images :

The Christian Catacombs of Ancient Rome : An Introduction (by Dr. Joseph Byrne, Belmont University)
http://campus.belmont.edu/honors/catacombs/catacombs.htm

Art in the Christian Catacombs of Rome
http://campus.belmont.edu/honors/CatPix/CatPix.html

The Good Shepherd



Jesus the Healer
"Your faith has saved you"

Catacombs of Domitilla http://www.catacombe.domitilla.it/
==> 35 images

Early Images of Jesus ==> 6 interesting quality images
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rels/002/Christianity/earlyart.html

Short Bibliography and Glossary
http://www.utoronto.ca/stmikes/courses/christianity/catacombs7.html

The 'Orante' figure


The Good Shepherd

International Catacomb Society: Visiting the Christian Catacombs ...
http://www.catacombsociety.org/visiting_Christian.html

Related interesting links http://www.catacombsociety.org/links.html



  Below are 3 more images from the Catacombs. They are part of the art site of Dr. Rozmeri Basic. This magnificent site is a 'must see', it can be seen on this same page.


Samson and the Lion.
Wall-painting, c. 350-400.
Via Latina Catacomb,
Rome.
(Dr. Rozmeri Basic)



The Good Shepherd, praying figures. Wall-painting.
Catacomb of Priscilla,
Rome.
(Dr. Rozmeri Basic)

Raising of Lazarus,
Wall Painting, 350-400.
Via Latina, Catacomb,
Rome.
(Dr. Rozmeri Basic)






The Priscilla Catacombs
http://web.tiscali.it/catacombe_priscilla/pagine-eng/regina.htm



Entrance of the
Priscilla Catacomb



Three Jouths in the
Fiery Furnace


The Sacrifice of Abraham



The Good Shepherd




A Catacomb Gallery
(excavated underground
pathway)

Orant figure from the
Giordani Catacombs





The oldest known image
of the Madonna

Greek Chapel

The Breaking of the Bread





Jesus and the Samaritan Woman
Catacomb of Via Latina.
Jesus asks a Samaritan woman for water at the well (see John 4:7-10). In turn, He offers her the water of eternal life.
 





Iconography and Iconoclasm in Byzantium
(
Icononodules and iconoclasts)

The era of Iconoclasm* (726-843 AD) was one of the most important spiritual crises of the Byzantine Empire. It was a major conflict that broke out between partisans (iconodules) and enemies (iconoclasts) of icons, between defenders of Orthodoxy and heretics: it was a doctrinal war. A first period (730 to 780) starts in 730 when Leon the Isaurian (726-741) decretes the prohibition of the icon cult which he classifies as idolatry. But it is not just a religious quarrel; it is the close of an era, the coming together of all sorts of tendencies, religious, political and economical that put into question all values in each and every domain. It is a complex phenomena. Nevertheless, dogmatic question points are at the root of the problem. Following a period of reinstatement of the holy images (780-813), a new iconoclastic period (813-842) breaks out which ends in 843 with the Victory of Orthodoxy.

==> Iconoclasm cannot really be fully understood outside of the context of Iconography and the Incarnation. Visit the page The Essential Feature of Icons


* Iconoclasm : Specific references on the 100-year-long conflict during which many icons were destroyed

Icons: Brief History (Alexander Boguslawski): Iconodules and Iconoclasts.
- The iconodules (defenders or lovers of icons) based their defense of icons on the Doctrine of the Incarnation and on the Dogma of the Two Natures of Christ.
- The iconoclasts (Emperor Leo III and a group of overzealous "puritans,") argued that misinterpretation of religious images leads to heresy.
http://www.rollins.edu/Foreign_Lang/Russian/history.html

Iconoclasm: Documents of the Iconoclastic Controversy:
Iconodule Position and Iconoclast Position (Dr. Kenneth W. Harl)
http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/readings/Iconoclasm.htm

Icons and iconoclasm (Alan L. Hayes, Toronto School of Theology)

Medieval Sourcebook - Iconoclasm (Paul Halsall, Fordham University, New York)

Icons and iconoclasm in Byzantium (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/icon/hd_icon.htm

Iconoclasm in Eight-Century Byzantium (Paul Stephensen)
http://homepage.mac.com/paulstephenson/trans/iconoclasm.html

Iconoclasm (Absolute Astronomy Reference)
http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/i/ic/iconoclasm.htm

Iconoclasm (Catholic Encyclopedia) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07620a.htm

Iconoclasm (Encyclopedia.com) http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/i1/iconocla.asp

History of the Iconoclastic (Image Breaking) Heresy
http://www.bringyou.to/apologetics/num55.htm




 




Meteor Monastery
Greece
(scroll down for more)

EASTERN
ORTHODOXY


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Chilandar Monastery
Greece
(scroll down for more)

St. Basil's Cathedral, Moscow
St. Basil's Cathedral, Moscow


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Ipatievsky Monastery, Kostroma
Church of The Resurrection,
St. Petersburg


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Eastern Orthodoxy


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Cathedral of the Assumption, Moscow
Cathedral of the
Assumption
Moscow


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Cathedral of the Assumption, Moscow
Annunciation Cathedral
Moscow


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View of 3 cathedrals, Moscow
View of 3 cathedrals,
Moscow


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Saint Sofia Cathedral
Kiev


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Transfiguration Monastery, Ellwood City PA
Transfiguration Monastery,
Ellwood City PA


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INTRODUCTION
     The following references are rich sources of information that may help to better understand the Orthodox Faith. Some of the referenced articles are authored by Orthodox, others by Catholics. They point out the essential elements of the Orthodox Faith, elements also that are complementary to other faiths.


(1) THE ORTHODOX TRADITION, Saving Medicine for the Whole Church.
http://www.angelfire.com/pa3/OldWorldBasic/East.html
A heartwarming account of an Orthodox Christian, the like of which I haven't found before. The heartwarming tone is set right at the start: Although the Schism between East and West was tragic and probably preventable, it seems that God providentially has spared the Eastern Church from many of the mistakes and their consequences that have beset the West. I haven't been able to figure out who the author is. But he is among God's chosen to be able to write what he did with love in his heart. I placed his writing ahead of all others because of it.

(2) What is Orthodoxy? by the St. Mary Orthodox Church Chambersburg PA
http://www.rdrop.com/users/stmary/orthodox.htm
==>  Very informative site ! And many beautiful icons !

(3) The Orthodox World
http://www.orthodoxworld.ru/english/index.htm (click 'cancel' in dialog box).
     The (Russian, Orthodox) authors specifically direct their attention to the Western reader, as part of an effort to make their Church better known, loved and accepted, as it is. The site is very complete. Here is what they themselves are saying about it : « The site can be considered as a general encyclopedia on Orthodoxy, created for a Western reader. In it we want to pay particular attention to the things that unite us and to those that are different to our traditions, but that complement each other ».
     All icon images are of high quality and great beauty. A highly instructive and beautiful website !

(4) Orthodox Faith and Life (Bishop Alexander) http://www.fatheralexander.org/index.shtml -> Very informative site !

(5) Foundational Beliefs - Orthodox Eastern and Roman Catholic
http://pom-www.army.mil/atzp/ch/world/pdf/a6belort.pdf

(6) Orthodoxy and Catholicism, A Comprehensive and Impartial Guide to Issues and Materials (byTim Spalding, a Catholic) -> Very informative site !
http://www.isidore-of-seville.com/orthodoxy_and_catholicism/index.html

(7) Eastern Orthodoxy Index Page (by Dave Armstrong, a Catholic) http://ic.net/~erasmus/RAZ23.HTM
      Table of Contents :
      - Critiques of Orthodoxy/Dialogues
      - Defenses of Catholic Doctrines Disputed by the Orthodox
      - Orthodox Links (including links to icon sites)
      - Catholic Links
      - Catholic Encyclopedia Articles
      ==> Very informative site !

(8) Pages Orthodoxes La Transfiguration (Paul Ladouceur)
This is one more excellent site. The images are beautiful and they are shown in their religious context http://www.pagesorthodoxes.net/index.htm .
         The site is a particularly rich source for getting to know various different elements of the Orthodox Faith. For example, The Jesus Prayer (The Prayer of the Heart), considered one of the most important elements of Orthodox spirituality, is described in full detail, by a number of different authors. More on the Jesus Prayer can be found in the separate section below. Since the site is in French, several English references are provided therein as well.
In order to get to the images, click the above link ; when you arrive on the site, click 'Pages Orthodoxes' ; next 'Index des Images' ; then scroll down one screen. Don't be discouraged if at first you have some difficulty navigating the site. It is worth the effort to seek and read because many of the texts accompanying the images are very profound and a source for reflexion or meditation that one seldom sees on the Internet.
Here is the world renowned icon of the Holy Trinity (La Sainte Trinité) of Andrei Rublev http://www.pagesorthodoxes.net/trinite/trinite1.htm  

(9) Russian Orthodox Church - Official Webserver of the Moscow Patriarchate
http://www.mospat.ru/e_startpage

(10) Diagram with organizational structure of Eastern Christianity
http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/christ/east/index.html

(11) Orthodox Links
http://dmoz.org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Christianity/Denominations/Orthodox/
A total of 840 categorized links prepared by the Open Directory Project (the largest human-edited directory of the web).

(12) TheoLogic Systems Orthodox WorldLinks
http://theologic.com/links/
A total of 714 categorized Orthodox WorldLinks as (verified as of 2-May-2003)

(13) Apologia - The Fullness of Christian Truth (by Tracy Elizabeth Tucciarone López, a Catholic) http://www.kensmen.com/catholic/index.html

(14) Églises orthodoxes. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89glises_orthodoxes

(15) Excerpts from "These Truths We Hold."
The Holy Orthodox Church: Her Life and Teaching. *New!*
Compiled and edited by a monk of the St. Tikhon’s Monastery
http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/truth_we_hold.htm Excellent!

The Jesus Prayer - Prayer of the Heart
La Prière de Jésus - La Prière du Coeur

The Jesus Prayer is considered one of the most important elements of Orthodox spirituality. In this section you will find links to a number of articles each written by a different author : 11 links to articles in French (selected & annotated by the auther of Les Pages Orthodoxes), and 13 links to articles in English.


The Jesus Prayer or Prayer of the Heart :
« Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God,
have mercy on me, a sinner »

Prière de Jésus ou Prière du Coeur :
« Seigneur Jésus-Christ, Fils de Dieu,
aie pitié de moi, pécheur »

Christ Pantocrator, Sofronov - 20th c.
Christ Pantocrator
Sofronov - 20th c.

The icon of Christ Pantocrator by the monk Sofronov (Monastère de Chevetogne, Belgium), shown above, together with its accompanying text is part of a series of 12 articles, each written by a different author, about The Jesus Prayer or Prayer of the Heart http://www.pagesorthodoxes.net/coeur/coeur-c.htm . This is all in French though. If you have difficulty reading French, then here are some excellent references in English.

ENGLISH REFERENCES :

- The Orthodox Rosary - The Jesus Prayer. Excerpts from the book 'Orthodox Church' by Bishop Kallistos Ware http://www.tlig.org/rosaryorth.html . Bishop Kallistos Ware is a Greek Orthodox Bishop in Oxford, Great Britain and one of the world's most popular Orthodox speakers. More on the author's writings can be found on this same page, by clicking the following 2 links : (1) Orthodoxy (2) The Great Schism . If you want to know other writings by Bishop Ware, then click the link that follows to be taken to the Search / Site Search utility and search the web with the keywords "Kallistos Ware". Also, many times forgotten, the IE 'Find' utility is an excellent tool to search for articles by Bishop Ware or others on this page.

- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
The Jesus Prayer, by Fr. Steven Peter Tsichlis
http://www.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/articles/article7104.asp

- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia
The Jesus Prayer, by Metropolitan Anthony Bloom http://home.it.net.au/~jgrapsas/pages/Jprayer.html

- Praying with the heart - The Jesus Prayer
http://www.stjohnhook.fsnet.co.uk/jesusprayer.htm

- The Jesus Prayer and Hesychasm
http://www.byzantinefranciscans.org/prayer.htm

- The Jesus Prayer - Prayer of the Heart : an additional 8 links to the Jesus Prayer
http://www.monachos.net/monasticism/jesus_prayer.shtml#featured


Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America - Resources http://www.goarch.org/en/resources/

Early Church History.
    Links related to early Church history: 'Creating a Hypertext Encyclopedia of
    early Church History' (The Ecole initiative, Evansville University
    http://cedar.evansville.edu/~ecoleweb/internet.html ).

    Even though the above Evansville source of links is dead, the following link
    http://www.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~relstud/links.shtml gives access to the page
    (Rutgers University) Department of Religious Studies, which starts with
    Religious Study Links. Click the above link, press PgDn once, then click
    Virtual Religion Index http://religion.rutgers.edu/vri/index.html .
    Now click Christian Tradition, http://religion.rutgers.edu/vri/xnity.html ,
    then scroll down to Eastern Orthodoxy.

Nick's Greek Orthodox Page http://greekorthodox.home.att.net/
Orthodox Doctrine - Lives of Saints - Prayers - Book Reviews - News

Links and Resources. Links to sites of Byzantine sister churches and parishes, or institutions, organizations or sources of information about Byzantine Christianity and/or Eastern Christianity -- some of which also include information about Russian Catholics or Christianity in Russia http://rumkatkilise.org/links.htm
(The Unofficial homepage of the Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada, Istanbul, Turkey)
 
Orthodoxy by Bishop Kallistos Ware
Orthodoxy THE INNER KINGDOM ($14.95, paper, xii, 230 pages; Volume One of THE COLLECTED WORKS, St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 0-88141-209-0) cloth http://www.wordtrade.com/religion/orthodoxy.htm
- The opening chapter recounts the author's journey to Orthodoxy.
- What is it that makes Bishop Kallistos's works so engaging?
- Bishop Kallistos is that rare individual whose work is accessible to the layperson, but at the same time worthwhile for the specialist.
- Like all great spiritual writings, Ware's works can be appreciated by persons of any spiritual persuasion.
- With what I have recently learned about Mgr. Ware the book should be very interesting and informative
 
Orthodox Easter - Holy Fire
http://www.iconsexplained.com/iec/iec_orthodox_easter_holy_fire.htm

Orthodox Eastern Church (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001)
http://aol.bartleby.com/65/or/Orthodox.html -> good historic overview

Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy (V. Potapov) http://www.stjohndc.org/stjohndc/english.htm
(Click Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy) Very informative
(Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, Washigton, DC)

Orthodoxy on the Internet http://www.st-sophia.com/Orthodoxy.htm

Religion in Russia http://www.ccds.charlotte.nc.us/Russia/religion.htm
(Discovering Russia at CCDS http://www.ccds.charlotte.nc.us/Russia/index.html)

St. Luke's Missionary Society: Medieval Serb Orthodox Chants, Orthodox Christian Information Center ; General Links (Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Rask and Prizren) http://www.decani.yunet.com/links.html

TSERKOVNOST :: An Eastern Orthodox Resource Centre is an independent non-incorporated non-profit religious educational institution established under the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America and the laws of the State of Florida. It is not an official organ of any particular Orthodox jurisdiction. http://www.tserkovnost.org/ *New!* Very informative.

Eastern Orthodox Churches http://www.travelnet.co.il/CHRISTIAN/EASTERNORTHODOXCHURCHES/Main.htm

Leçon 5 L’EGLISE ORTHODOXE
http://www.univ-tlse2.fr/multimedia/medievale/UE5/ue5_med_cours/ue5_med_5l.htm#up

Antiochan Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America
http://www.antiochian.org/Parishes/other_orthodox_web_sites.htm

Orthodox Christian Information Center http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/

Orthodox Christian Portal - in English http://www.credo.ro/en/index.php
     Credo.ro - in Romanian http://www.credo.ro/index.php

The reason behind the different calendar of Church Feasts in the East and West
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89glises_orthodoxes#Calendrier (in French)

The Date of Orthodox Easter 1875 to 2124
http://www.smart.net/~mmontes/OrthEasttbl.html

Acathist Hymn http://www.IconsExplained.com/iec/iec_acathist_hymn.htm

 

EARLY CHURCH FATHERS 

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The Three Hierarchs
of the Church, 20th c.



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"Christian Classics Ethereal Library" - Classic Christian books in electronic format, selected for your edification. http://www.ccel.org/ . Following are two chapters, but there are many more. Excellent!

Early Church Fathers http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/

Classics http://www.ccel.org/index/classics.html

The Three Hierarchs of the Church http://www.iconsexplained.com/iec/02064.htm

The Three Pillars of Orthodoxy Ss. Photios the Great, Mark of Ephesus, and Gregory Palamas http://www.tserkovnost.org/articles/pillars.html *New!*
Very informative.

Doctors of the Catholic Church http://www.doctorsofthecatholicchurch.com/. By Tommy Ferris. Superb!











 

OTHER EASTERN CHURCHES
Eastern Rite Churches


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Byzantine Catholic Church in America
http://www.byzcath.org/links/Parish-Home-Pages.htm

Byzantine Catholic Church - Page of Faith http://www.3d4life.net/byzantine/

What is the Byzantine Catholic Church? http://www.parma.org/what.htm

Eastern Rite Churches
http://i-cias.com/e.o/east_rite.htm

Eastern Rites Today
http://www.petersnet.net/research/retrieve.cfm?RecNum=2729

Melkite Church (The Melkite Greek Catholic Church)
- http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/christ/east/melk.html
- http://i-cias.com/e.o/melkite.htm

Melkite Church in America / Byzantine Catholic Church in America / Melkite Greek Catholic Church in Canada
http://www.byzcath.org/news/Melkite/980710_canada.htm

Melkite Catholic Church of Australia and New Zealand
http://www.melkite.org.au/index.html

Melkite Greek Catholic Church Information Center (unofficial Melkite Greek Catholic Web site) http://www.mliles.com/melkite/

- About Melkite icons http://www.chremoy.org/Icones002p1_e.shtml

- Acathist Hymn / Akathist Hymn / Hymn of the Akathistos
(Melkite Greek Catholic Church Information Center)
http://www.mliles.com/melkite/acathist2000.shtml

Links and Resources http://rumkatkilise.org/links.htm





 
ROMAN CATHOLIC SITES

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NOTE
This section of the General References page is not yet fully organized. For now, the main subjects in this chapter are :


ECUMENICAL COUNCILS

The Ecumenical Councils and their Chief Doctrines (Catholic Online)
http://www.catholicism.org/pages/ecumenic.htm

Also see / copied from Eastern Orthodoxy (15) :
Excerpts from "These Truths We Hold."
The Holy Orthodox Church: Her Life and Teaching. *New!*
Compiled and edited by a monk of the St. Tikhon’s Monastery Excellent!
http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/truth_we_hold.htm


BYZANTINE ICONS

Even though there are few Roman Catholic websites on byzantine icons, they do exist. The following references are examples thereof.

Orientale Lumen - Articles on Christian Iconography and Christian Icons.
http://www.mliles.com/jimcndf/icons/articles.shtml
The site is authored by Rev. James N. Chevedden, S.J. and Scholastic Paul A. Zalonski, S.J. (a bi-ritual Jesuit priest).

Centre d'Etudes Russes Saint-Georges, directed by Father Egon Sendler S.J. , reportedly Western Europe's most eminent iconographer.

St. Andrei Rublev Icon Studio, USA. It is the studio of Father William H. McNichols, an American iconographer.

Christus Rex : a private, non-profit organization that presents over 5000 images of religious works of art preserved in churches, cathedrals and monasteries all over the world http://www.christusrex.org/

-- Christus Rex hosts some very beautiful byzantine icons. However, one has got to know that they are there, as the title is buried in another chapter that sounds as if icons don't exist. To find them, select 'Renaissance Paintings Gallery', then 'A new featured section' 'Russian Icons' http://www.christusrex.org/www2/art/icons.htm .

-- NOTE : The above 'Russian Icons' title is not to be confused with a title of the same name, i.e. 'Russian Icons', listed right underneath 'Renaissance Paintings Gallery'. That title refers to the site of Orthodox contemporary iconographer Tatiana Vartanova. Click this link / line to see a reference to her site (Icon Painting and Restoration) included on the Contemporary Byzantine Icons page.
CATHOLIC RESOURCES

Catholic Canada - Online Directory http://www.catholicanada.com/

Catholic Information Network http://www.cin.org/index.html

Catholic Pillar and Foundation http://www.freewebs.com/catholicpillar2/

Christians on the web - Des Chrétiens sur le web http://www.mylinea.com/custodia/

Works and Writings by Yuri Koszarycz, Senior Lecturer (School of Theology, McAuley Campus) Australian Catholic University.
     (1) Ecclesiology: A Study in Church History. Excellent ! http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/staffhome/yukoszarycz/ecc/index.html
     (2) The Australian Ejournal of Theology online http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/ejournal/
click on February 2006 to retrieve ISSUE 6 - ISSN 1448 - 6326, or click the following direct link http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/ejournal/aejt_6/index.html

Eternal Word Television Network, Global Catholic Network http://www.ewtn.com/

Le Kiosk des sciences religieuses
http://www.sciencepresse.qc.ca/kiosquerel/kiosquer2.html

Le site religieux de Bayard http://www.croire.com/index.jsp

Links to Other (Roman Catholic) Web Sites http://www.medjugorje.org/links.htm

(The) Marian Shrines website http://www.geocities.com/marianshrines/welcome.html

Pope John Paul II - Apostolic Letters, Speeches...
   - Speeches http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/2002/july/index.htm
   - Orientale Lumen - Apostolic Letter http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_02051995_orientale-lumen_en.html

Roman Catholic Periodicals and News Reports
   - L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English
http://www.vatican.va/news_services/or/or_eng/index.html
   - Madonna House Publications - A Catholic Christian Publisher of Religious Books, AudioBooks, Videos, Music. http://www.madonnahouse.org/publications/
   - National Catholic Reporter http://www.natcath.com/index.htm
   - The Tablet http://www.thetablet.co.uk/
   - Zenit, the World seen from Rome http://www.zenit.org/english/
   - TOPCHRETIEN.COM http://www.topchretien.com/default.php
      Animations Flash http://www.topchretien.com/flash/

Top 50 Catholic websites in the world (New Advent / Catholic Encyclopedia)
http://www.newadvent.org/


MISCELLANEOUS

Church Approved Stigmatist Writes to Mel Gibson. The Following is a letter by Myrna Nazzour of Damascus http://www.unitypublishing.com/Newsletter/GibsonMirna.htm

The Inquisition. A Brief History of the Inquisition - Written by Robert Jones - presents an overview of the Inquisition, including a look at the “justification”, methodologies, victims, and results of the 600-year reign of this most dreaded institution http://www.sundayschoolcourses.com/inq/inquisition.htm

The Inquisition (Catholic Encyclopedia)
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/ ==> enter 'inquisition' in search box

Notre-Dame-du-Cap (Quebec), Canada's most important pilgrimage place
http://www.iconsexplained.com/iec/notre_dame_du_cap_canada_en.htm

Our Lady's Library http://www.fatima.org/library/cr26pg31.html
The Millennium of Christianity is ... Not in Russia But the Ukraine

Saint Joseph / About Saint Joseph
   - Finding Saint Joseph (by S. Miesel)
http://www.petersnet.net/research/retrieve.cfm?RecNum=4464
   - Saint Joseph (Catholic Encyclopedia) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08504a.htm
   - L'Oratoire Saint-Joseph http://www.saint-joseph.org/

The Dick Staub Interview (Source: Christianity Today)
- About Dick Staub http://www.christianitytoday.com/ctmag/features/columns/staub.html
- The Dick Staub Interview: Why Frederica Mathewes-Green Loves Icons
http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2003/136/22.0.html

APPARITIONS

(1) Apparitions & Eucharistic Miracles http://www.christusrex.org/www1/apparitions/ ==> Caution! Read note below.
(2) Apparitions of Jesus and Mary http://www.apparitions.org/ ==> Very good!
 
Note: Both above sites are interesting. However, caution must be exercised in (1) as some apparitions are not recognized by the Church. Therefore, in order to avoid exposure to any unverifiable misinterpretations, it may be wiser to consult site (2). The reason being that in site (2) each miracle is accompanied with a 'rating' indicating the Church's stand relative to the particular miraculous event. If no rating is available yet, the status is indicated of the Church's investigation.

Apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Lourdes, France (1858)
- Introduction http://www.catholic.org/clife/mary/lourdes1.php
- Bernadette http://www.catholic.org/clife/mary/berndtte.php
- The Grotto http://www.catholic.org/clife/mary/grotto.php
- The Apparitions http://www.catholic.org/clife/mary/app.php
- Bishop's Commission http://www.catholic.org/clife/mary/commsn1.php
- Episcopal Commission's Report http://www.catholic.org/clife/mary/commrept.php
- Canonization http://www.catholic.org/clife/mary/canon.php
- Her Incorrupt Body http://www.catholic.org/clife/mary/body.php
     Source: Catholic Online http://www.catholic.org/

Apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Medjugorje, Bosnia-Herzegovina (1981 - present) http://www.medjugorje.org/


THE HOLY SHROUD - Le Saint Suaire

- The Holy Shroud - Official Site http://sindone.torino.chiesacattolica.it/en/welcome.htm

- The Holy Shroud of Turin http://iconaantica.spb.ru/shroud.html

- The Shroud of Turin http://www.shroud.com/

- The Holy Shroud of Turin (Catholic Encyclopedia)
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13762a.htm

- Turin Shroud 'shows second face' http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3621931.stm

- Discovery of a second face on the Turin Shroud
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/3624753.stm

- Le Saint Suaire de Turin - Site is in French. It has many links in both English and French
http://www.spiritualite-chretienne.com/stsuaire/stsuaire.html

- Rethinking the Shroud objectively http://www.shroudstory.com/faq-jesus-in-art.htm

- Are the Holy Cloth of Edessa and the Holy Shroud of Turin one and the same? It's what researchers are suggesting http://www.iconsexplained.com/iec/iec_icon_of_christ_not_by_hand.htm


Holy Mandylion, 17th century. Dionysiou Monastery, Mount Athos, Greece.

 
ECUMENICAL ISSUES

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NOTE
        With the exception of the section on the Great Schism immediately following, the articles in this chapter, shown after the (section on the) Great Schism, primarily serve as starting points for those who want to know more about ecumenical issues.
        The section on the Great Schism contains several articles and citations of (mostly) Orthodox authors. Much of it is new information for the Roman Catholic I am. Despite some strong wording, the information, taken as a whole, has provided me with a deeper understanding of this issue, for which I am grateful.
        And even though it may be healthy, at times, to hear issues expressed in a confrontational manner, I believe that what ultimately will bring us closer together is speaking the Truth with Love while focussing on the points we can agree on. Among others, this will include:
        - The veneration of the Holy Virgin Mary by the Eastern Orthodox Church particularly as this is being expressed through the sacred art of icon painting in the traditional style;
        - The sense of organization in the Roman Catholic Church with as result the ability of the Roman Catholic Church to speak with one voice;
        - Prayer.

THE GREAT SCHISM
    - The Great Schism generally refers to the formal rupture in 1054 between the differing Latin and Greek branches of Christianity.
    - This section proposes several well written and informative articles with regard to the WHY, HOW and WHEN of the Great Schism of the Undivided Church. The authors are religious from the Greek Orthodox Church. It is truly heartwarming to see that several authorities are making an effort to clarify matters by efficient non-judgemental communication.
    - References dealing directly with this issue are shown within this section. Others, of more general nature, are shown outside of it.

THE GREAT SCHISM OF THE ECUMENICAL CHURCH
http://paul.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/articles/article7108.asp
     - Rev. George Mastrantonis presents an in-depth look at the causes and history of the Great Schism that split the Ecumenical Church in two:  Eastern Orthodoxy in the East, and Roman Catholicism in the West.

THE GREAT SCHISM
 - THE ESTRANGEMENT OF EASTERN AND WESTERN CHRISTENDOM

http://www.stpaulsirvine.org/html/TheGreatSchism.htm
    - In this article, taken from his book "The Orthodox Church", Bishop Kallistos Ware tells how the events took place, in 1054, as if it happened a few hours ago. With an easygoing, clearly understandable style, he puts the facts before us and does not shy away from saying what he thinks.

THE FILIOQUE (Latin for « AND THE SON »)
http://www.catholic.com/library/Filioque.asp
    - This article helps us understand (1) what «Filioque» stands for, and (2) how its interpretation or translation has been a factor in the Great Schism.
    - The article, from "Catholic Answers" (no specific author is mentioned), starts off by explaining that the dispute centers around the question of how the word «Filioque», which in Latin means «and the Son», was or should be interpreted or translated. Does the Spirit proceed from the Father, or from the Father «and the Son», or from the Father «through the Son».
    - The article also shows how certain unrelated circumstances surrounding the events of that time may have precipitated the events that followed, which is as if to say that had the circumstances been different, history would have turned out different as well. In any case, it seems that other unrelated events may somehow have impacted the course of the Schism events.

FILIOQUE (Catholic Encyclopedia)
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06073a.htm

FILIOQUE (On the Question of the Filioque)
http://www.ocf.org/OrthodoxPage/reading/filioque.html

EASTERN ORTHODOX RESOURCES
 - THE ORTHODOX TRUE PATH - CATHOLICISM

http://orthodox.truepath.com/menu/catholic/Catholic_Index.htm

    - Webmaster's Note: The following are starting sentences of some of the sections.

    - There has been no greater assault on the Church than the one presented by Catholicism * (4th Crusade).
    - The exact date of the schism between East and West cannot really be established. Conflicts arose as early as the fourth century and while there is not an easily recognizable "official break", the ninth century clearly sees heresy in the Western "Church" as an institution. These divergent paths have never ceased to carry Rome further away from the Church and what were once cracks, are now gorges. Front and center among these disagreements is the Primacy of Rome / the Bishop of Rome.
    - Roman Catholics find it hard to accept, because of intense conditioning, that their "Church" with its medieval trappings of power and prestige and an institution whose unique infrastructure depends on an archaic system of law could separate itself from the "purity" of the early Church.
    - We are however disposed to great tolerance toward Roman Catholics who believe in the divine origin of the Papal prerogatives; for we know that this prejudgment is communicated to all of them with the first elements of religious instruction, and that everything in the Roman Church tends to strengthen it in their souls. But the more deeply this delusion is rooted in the Roman Church, and generally in all the West, the more are we bound to combat it with vigor.

PREMIÈRE LITURGIE ORTHODOXE EN L'ÉGLISE STS VINCENT ET ANASTASE
Les premiers fruits du voyage de Jean-Paul II en Bulgarie
http://www.iconsexplained.com/iec/premiere_liturgie_orthodoxe.htm
      Here is a REPRINT of a recent (25 May 2003) article form ZENIT in which Pope Jean-Paul II reiterates his desire, expressed since the beginning of his pontificat, to see the moment re-appear that "the Church of Christ respirates with its two lungs".
      Even though the reprint article is in French, ZENIT makes its publications available in several languages, thus it probably can be found in English as well.

EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES - HISTORY
http://www.travelnet.co.il/CHRISTIAN/EASTERNORTHODOXCHURCHES/Main.htm
    - The article 'Eastern Orthodox Churches' includes a good summary description of the essential elements together causing the Great Schism

APOLOGIA The Fullness of Christian Truth (by Tracy Elizabeth Tucciarone López, a Catholic) http://www.kensmen.com/catholic/index.html .
        Of particular interest in Apologia, i.e. in the context of this chapter on Ecumenism, is the spiritual journey of James (Jim) Likoudis. This journey, called 'From Orthodox to Catholic', can be heard on Real Audio. On the Apologia Index page, click the link 'From Orthodox to Catholic' under 'Conversion Stories in Real Audio'. You can also click the link right here on this line http://www.ewtn.com/vondemand/audio/resolve.asp?rafile=jh_73.ra . 'From Orthodox to Catholic' was aired / seen on the EWTN weekly program 'Journey Home' hosted by Marcus Grodi.

Pope Innocent III and the Great Schism
Read about the man, the office, the power, and the split between the Eastern and Western Christian (Catholic) Church throughout the 11th -13th centuries. Find out about the part the Fourth Crusade played in the "big picture" - very informative text
http://www.mcauley.acu.edu.au/~yuri/ecc/mod5.html
-
--------------------------------------------
* See The Fourth Crusade



THE FOURTH CRUSADE

In the "black section" that follows you will find links on the Crusades. Even though I have not studied this subject in detail, it is clear that the Fourth Crusade went out of control and had grave consequences for the Byzantine Empire. And even though the sacking of Constantinople wasn't planned beforehand, the fact that it happened isn't something that 'Western Christianity' can be proud of. The references that follow shed more light on the reasons why control was lost. 'Chronology of the Crusades' further down sums it up in a few paragraphs.

It is a good idea, also, to read more about the Crusades in general in order to understand why they were initiated and to place the events of the Fourth Crusade in the proper context. In one of the chapters of his site "Paradoxplave", Adrian Fletcher has managed to do this for us in a few lines. His account of the Crusades (the next 2 bullets) is very clear, and the shortest and most lively of anything I have seen todate.


THE CRUSADES (Paradoxplace Insight Pages).   By Adrian Fletcher.   *New!* 
        http://www.paradoxplace.com/Insights/Crusades/Crusades.htm

Paradox Site Directory  -  http://www.paradoxplace.com/Directory.htm.    *New!* 


International Congress - The Fourth Crusade and Its Consequences -
       Athens, 9 - 12 March 2004 http://www.cc.uoa.gr/4thcrusade/

Medieval Sourcebook: The Fourth Crusade 1204: Collected Sources (by Paul Halsall)
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/4cde.html

Google Search - Fourth Crusade
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Fourth+Crusade&btnG=Google+Search

Crusades (Catholic Encyclopedia) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04543c.htm
- In "The Crusade against (!) Constantinople" http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04543c.htm#V a detailed history of events can be found of how and why the Fourth Crusade went out of control.

Chronology of the Crusades
- World History, Byzantine and Islamic Worlds 5. Chronology of the Crusades >> has short descriptions
http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:_eCy5cyCFqkJ:www1.fccj.edu/lchandouts/Humlabhandouts/5-Crusades%2520Timeline.doc+Chronology+of+the+Crusades&hl=en this is the html version of the (following) word.doc file http://www1.fccj.edu/lchandouts/Humlabhandouts/5-Crusades%20Timeline.doc
(both files are believed to be part of Nancy Mautz Creative Impulse)
- Click following Google Search / link for more chronology references :
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Chronology+of+the+Crusades&btnG=Google+Search

Chronology (Timeline) of the Crusades. Fourth Crusade 1198-1207
http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blchron_xian_crusades07.htm

RECUEIL D'IMAGES RELATIVES AUX CROISADES ET À L'HISTOIRE BYZANTINE
http://www.callisto.si.usherb.ca/~croisade/IMAGES/Webimages.htm

What exactly did the Fourth Crusaders plunder? *New!*
http://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=6047&PN=1
If the people that made this entry in the "AllEmpires.com History Forum" are to be believed, then this is what was stolen :

After the killing, after the city had been subdued, there began a slow and steady removal of treasures out of the Orthodox temples and into the cathedrals, churches, monasteries, convents, cities and towns of Latin Europe. Some of these items had been venerated, cherished, and protected for centuries, others for a millennium. Now they were being carted away from over a hundred and fifty churches: altars, altar screens, tabernacles, antimins, icons, icon frames, processional, pectoral and altar crosses, gold and silver chains, panagias, mitres, croziers, chalices, patens, star covers and spears, Gospels, Epistle books, ladles, church plate, censers, votive lights, relics, candelabra, epitaphia, fans, reliquaries, vestments, banners, manuscripts, miniatures, ivories, carvings, mosaics, thrones, tapestries, furniture and architectural items. Cartloads of gold and silver from Santa Sophia found their way into the Vatican treasury. Constantinople had become the gold mine which supplied Latin Christendom.

The wealth was so great that the looting continued for sixty years. A century earlier, after the First Crusade, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Edessa were similarly stripped for a period of forty years. Now it was happening to the imperial city. A scandalous traffic in relics was started. The head of St. John the Baptist was carried off to Amiens. Amalfi, Italy took the head of St. Andrew the First-Called from the Church of the Holy Apostles, along with a set of heavy bronze doors. The bishop of Soissons shipped home the head of St. Stephen and a relic of St. John. The remains of St. Clement, pillaged from the Church of St. Theodosia, were taken to Cluny. St. Albans received the relics of St. Marina. Halbstadt claimed the relics of St. James. The True Cross was divided up among the barons, with a portion sent to the pope, and another fragment taken to Paris. A priceless gold and enamel reliquary encrusted with jewels, containing a fragment of the Wood wound up in a nunnery in Steuben. King Louis IX of France paid 10,000 silver marks for the "true" Crown of Thorns, for which he built St. Chapells in Paris.

Gone was the maphorion of the Theotokos, as was her zone and the wonder-working icon. Gone or destroyed--the relics of St. Luke and St. Timothy; no trace of the relics of St. John Chrysostom. An altar cloth with the relic of St. Paul was missing. Nothing is known of the stone seat of St. Mark.

The Venetians were the most discriminating--they knew exactly what to take. From the Monastery of the Pantacrator they appropriated a group of exquisite gem-crusted enamel cameos, (a vast collection of panagias), to enhance the Palo D'Oro, an elaborate Byzantine bejeweled gold screen which was used in the Cathedral in Venice to cover the relics of St. Mark. (We will recall that St. Mark was stolen from Alexandria in the ninth century). They also carried off the Icon of the Theotokos of Nikopeia, as well as a relic of St. Stephen (the feet already were in Venice). The golden tabernacle from the Church of the Holy Apostles, a replica of the church itself, was added to their booty. Venice's prized possessions are the four magnificent glided bronze horses, cast in Constantine's time, which once stood in the Hippodrome; today, except when removed for cleaning, they stand atop the gallery of St. Mark's basilica. The porphyry statue of four tetrarchs, taken from a palace, stands in a corner of St. Mark's treasury.

Venetians valued craftsmen, and they took away the best: goldsmiths, silversmiths, jewel workers, iconographers, woodcarvers, stone and glass workers. Much of the Venetian glass technique so famous today originated in Constantinople. St. Mark's contains the finest collection of Byzantine craftsmanship in the world. It includes 32 Byzantine chalices, plus assorted relics, reliquaries, altar pieces, Gospels, Jewels, vestments, manuscripts and church plate. The collection includes the Veroli casket, the finest Byzantine carved ivory in the world, and the Psalter of Emperor Basil.

Dandolo sent home shiploads of mosaics, panels, stones, pillars, precious marbles, columns of rare stones and the many building components which have gone into creating the texture of the city which today is Venice.



Ecumenical Studies http://www.iconbook.org/Ecumenical%20Studies.html.
The subject is one of the chapters of a website named 'Architecture, Art & Iconography'
http://www.iconbook.org/Art%20and%20Iconography.html.

Ecumenism in the Eastern Church (Fr. Walid Moussa)
CATHOLIC MEN'S TUESDAY BREAKFAST
A Transcribed Talk by Fr. Walid Moussa, Maronite Priest -- December 22, 1998
http://www.rc.net/events/breakfast/ecumeast.htm

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America - Ecumenical Issues

      - The Basic Sources of the Teachings of the Eastern Orthodox Church
      http://paul.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/articles/article7064.asp

      - An Orthodox Christian View of Non-Christian Religions
      http://paul.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/articles/article8089.asp

      - Tradition in the Orthodox Church
      http://paul.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/articles/article7116.asp

The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt

Things Catholics often don’t understand about Eastern Orthodoxy
http://oldworldrus.com/

The Orthodox Tradition - Saving Medicine for the Whole Church
http://www.angelfire.com/pa3/OldWorldBasic/East.html
Written by an American Orthodox, the site presents a down to earth introduction to the Orthodox Tradition with a wealth of links, including access to beautiful icons. The site is NOT an official document of the Orthodox Church.

Cardinal Husar (UGCC*) Says Roman Bureaucracy Hinders Catholic-Orthodox Unity
http://www.ugcc.org.ua/eng/news/article;302/
(*UGCC is short for 'Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church')

Inter-ritual Associations
      - RCMO. Rassemblement de Chretiens du Moyen Orient (Montreal, Canada)
      http://www.chremoy.org/Rassemblement1_f.shtml

In pictures: Russian icon returns BBC NEWS Update Saturday 28 August 2004
      http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/3607888.stm

World Orthodoxy News *New!*
http://www.kollekcia.ru/cgi-bin/nika.cgi?cs=windows-1251&q=362&ch=http:%2F%2Fwww.orthodoxfrat.de%2Fnewnew.htm&fm=off
The start of the page does not provide a menu or table of contents. Simply scroll down a few screens until you see :
    - Metropolitan Kirill of Smolensk and Kaliningrad :
      Our Cooperation Is Absolutely Necessary and Is Awaited by Millions of People
      http://www.orthodoxfrat.de/newnew.htm#europaica3

Divine Motives - By Dale Keiger - Johns Hopkins Magazine - November 1999  *New!*
Why did King Louis IX, by all accounts a wise man, commit his nation to a crusade that was doomed to fail? Professor Dan Weiss looked to art to find the answer
- http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/1199web/divine.html

 
BIBLES, ENCYCLOPEDIAS...

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Bibles

ENGLISH

New American Bible http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/

The Bible, King James Version Old and New Testaments, with the Apocrypha
University of Virginia http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/kjv.browse.html

World Wide Study Bible http://www.ccel.org/wwsb/
The World Wide Study Bible organizes scripture versions, commentaries, sermons, study guides, and book references according to scripture passage. Are you studying a particular passage? You'll find many relevant references here.

FRENCH

Bible LSG NT http://bibleonline.free.fr/nouveau.tes/indexnt.htm
La Bible. Ancien Testament. Nouveau Testament. Traduction Louis Segond (1910). Les quatre Evangiles: Evangile selon saint Matthieu; Evangile selon saint Marc; Evangile selon saint Luc; ...

Documentary Sources on Catholic Teaching, including Bible Reviews:

'Catholicism' (Paul Halsall) http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/medweb/links.htm#cath ; now click first entry for commentary on several bibles:
- Guide to Catholic Sources >> Medieval Sourcebook: Documentary Sources on Catholic Teaching http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/catholic_sources.html

Encyclopedias

ART

ArtCyclopedia: Byzantine Artists; example: search for the names and bibliography of well known Byzantine Artists http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/byzantine.html

World Wide Arts Resources http://wwar.com/

Artlex on Byzantine Art http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/b/byzantine.html

RELIGION

Catholic Encyclopedia http://www.newadvent.org/cathen >> example: use search engine to look for lives of saints (keyword "lives of saints")

Christian Classics Ethereal Library http://www.ccel.org/

World Wide Encyclopedia of Christianity http://www.ccel.org/php/wwec.php
The World Wide Encyclopedia of Christianity is intended to provide one-stop access to a number of dictionaries and encyclopedias of Christianity, and other topical references.

Religion-online.org Full texts by recognized religious scholars, organized in directories http://www.religion-online.org/

Catechism Online
   - English: Catechism of the Catholic Church    
   - French: Catéchisme de l'Église Catholique

GENERAL

Encyclopedia.com http://www.encyclopedia.com/

Internet Public Library http://www.ipl.org/

 
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INDEX

- Art theft on a gigantic scale
- The Byzantine Fresco Chapel Museum / The Menil Collection
- A major step in fight against illicit traffic in cultural property
- The Dick Staub Interview: Why Frederica Mathewes-Green Loves Icons
- The Orthodox tradition shares its riches



ART THEFT ON A GIGANTIC SCALE
The following articles describe the looting of Churches and Monasteries after the occupation of northern Cyprus by Turkish forces in 1974. These scenes reflect what European police investigators now say is one of the most systematic art-looting operations since the Nazis plundered the countries they occupied during World War II.

- Church Treasures of Cyprus (by Mark Rose)
http://www.archaeology.org/9807/etc/special.html
http://www.archaeology.org/9807/etc/jpegs/special.jpeg

- Looting in Cyprus and Michel van Rijn (selection of newspaper and magazine articles)
http://www.museum-security.org/cyprus-and-michel-van-rijn.htm

- The Byzantine Bust http://www.michelvanrijn.com/pillowtalk/dikmen.htm

- The Plunder of Cyprus
http://members.fortunecity.com/turkeyhumanrights/religion/Plunder.htm

- Dutch former art dealer and smuggler who has collaborated with police against the illicit art trade. Includes a 'Swindler's list' of art theft news; synopsis of his book 'Hot Art and Cold Cash' http://www.michelvanrijn.com

- From Cyprus to Munich http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/cyprus/index.html
(includes several images)

- Stolen Byzantine Icons returned to Cyprus http://scatoday.net/node/view/2350
10 July 2004

- Special Report: Church Treasures of Cyprus
The 13th c. fresco of the church of St. Themonianos in Cyprus was one of the sacred art pieces looted by Dikman [img: http://www.archaeology.org/9807/etc/jpegs/special.jpeg]. The report / article [http://www.archaeology.org/9807/etc/special.html] describes how the fresco ended up in the USA and how it was reconstructed.

- The Case of the Kanakaria Mosaics
http://www.pio.gov.cy/features/cyprus_issue/kanakaria_mosaics.htm

The Byzantine Fresco Chapel Museum / The Menil Collection
http://www.menil.org/byzantine.html

A MAJOR STEP IN FIGHT AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN CULTURAL PROPERTY
http://www.unesco.org/bpi/eng/unescopress/98-11e.htm

The Dick Staub Interview: Why Frederica Mathewes-Green Loves Icons
http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2003/136/22.0.html

The Orthodox tradition shares its riches - 20 May 2005 (National Catholic Reporter)
http://natcath.org/NCR_Online/archives2/2005b/052005/052005sse.htm

Miracle Worker. The Basilica of St. Nicholas in Bari, visited for centuries by both Catholic and Orthodox pilgrims, brings its treasures to an exhibition in Moscow.
http://www.newsindex.com/cgi-bin/resulttick.cgi?http://www.moscowtimes.ru/indexes/2005/07/14/01.html










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