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Medieval Byzantine Icons, Frescoes & Mosaics
Also includes Coptic Icons, and Exhibitions & Collections
Large, Comprehensive, Illustrated
Internet Resource

of Annotated Links to 4000 images of Ancient and Medieval Byzantine Icons, Frescoes & Mosaics, hand-painted in the Traditional Eastern Orthodox style. The Links are arranged by country of origin and cover 23 countries. Included is a chapter on Icons of the Coptic Church.

Related pages :
Ancient Byzantine Icons for Sale  |  Russian Icon Tour
Icon Masters and Schools  | Essential Feature of Icons 
What are Byzantine Icons ?  |  Dogma of Chalcedon
Veneration of the Holy Virgin  |  The Akathist Hymn
History of Iconography

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The Frescoes & Mosaics Chapter

 Did you know ?
     Many countries in Southern and Eastern Europe possess beautiful byzantine frescoes and mosaics.
     The greatest treasures of mosaics are in Ravenna and Sicily, Italy, and in Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey.
     The world's most beautiful ancient frescoes are found in the Balkans (Macedonia and Serbia).

*New!*  Icons Explained has taken out most of the clicking to make it easy for you to access this beauty.
Simply visit The Frescoes & Mosaics Chapter
From within the FM Chapter, with just a few clicks, you have access to practically all fresco and mosaic references available on the web, today. That includes :
     "Byzantine Monuments" - the excellent site of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
     "Byzantine Art" - the mosaics by the world renowned Berger Foundation
     "The Monuments of Ravenna" - the well organized and very educational site by Dr. Rozmeri Basic
     The top 20+ websites of ancient and medieval frescoes and mosaics - by Belmont University, and others

  Click FM Chapter or click the FM Chapter link in the Floating menu.

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Top of Page     Links Menu     Frescoes & Mosaics     New Additions     SiteSearch     Translation Utility

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Links Menu : Click the place you want to visit.       Quickly find a subject on this page.

Balkans              Hungary 
    Albania               Macedonia
    Bosnia-Herz.     Romania
    Bulgaria             Serbia & Montenegro
    Croatia               Balkans - Other Sites


Greece              Kythera
    Athens               Mani
    Chania              Mount Athos
    Corfu                 Patmos, Rhodes
    Crete                 Thessaloniki
    Kastoria           Greece - Other Sites
    Hellenic Macedonia

    Cefalu               Ravenna
    Genazzano       Rome
    Monreale          Torcello     Venice
    Palermo           Italy - Other Sites
(1) Lithuania and Poland are shown together in view of their 400-year long commonwealth / common history (1386-1795).
(2) The histories of Russia and Ukraine are intimately linked. (3) The oldest icons were found in Georgia.
(4) Major Sites and Databases of Medieval Byzantine images and links that are not included anywhere else on this page.
NEW 1 - Blago Showcase Gallery Click link to the left *New!*
NEW 2 - British Museum (Russia Other Sites) *New!*
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Voronet Monastery
Romania *F*

The Balkans

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Albania | Bosnia-Herzegovina | Bulgaria | Croatia
Hungary | Macedonia | Romania | Serbia | Slovenia

Virgin Hodegetria
19th century
Christo Dimitrov

Maps of the Balkans :  1  2


While it is convenient to group icons of the Balkans together, it is not to say that all Balkan countries are alike. Nothing is farther from the truth. Romania is very different from Bulgaria, for example.


Links Menu
Our Lady of Good Counsel, Scutari, Albania, 15th c.

Sts. Constantine
and Helena
by Onufri, 16th c.
3 Also see Our Lady of Good Counsel, Genazzano, Italy

Icons of the Albanian Museum (Carlo Franza)

Icons of the Onuphre Museum
==> 3 beautiful icons with a unique style - by the 16th century icon painter Onuphri, recognized as the most important icon painter in Albania.

More icons of the Onuphre Museum
==> 20 icons and frescoes, some with 'Onuphri-style red'. By Albanian iconographers Onuphri, Zograf, Costandini, Dhimitri, and Kostandino Jeromonaku. Scroll to bottom of page 3, then continue on to page 4. *New!*

Royal Door, 16th century
*F* Icons and Frescoes in Albania ==> about 30 images
Links Menu


Icons of Bosnia-Herzegovina (16th-19th century)
by Svetlana Rakic Assistant Professor of Fine Arts at Franklin College (USA)
A very nice site. Many icon images shown there are not shown anywhere else.
==> 35 icon images and 7 images of churches

Virgin Eleousa
Rila Monastery
Bulgaria, 18th c.


-- 21 rarely seen medieval Bulgarian icons, and
-- 31 contemporary icons by Ivanka Kortzanova

The Reliquary of the Blessed Virgin Mary


The Annunciation, mosaic
Porec, Croatia
Mother of God of Hvar ............... (link to come)

*M* *F* Eufrasius' Basilica, Porec, 6th century. Eufrasius' Basilica constitutes one of the best preserved monuments of early Byzantine art in the Mediterranean, where Christianity was established as early as the 4th century. The site is on the UNESCO World Heritage list .
-- History & Heritage
-- Euphrasius' Basilica - virtual tour, mosaics *New!*, click links to the right

-- Christ Almighty with Saints, mosaic *New!*
-- 6 or 7 more mosaics (scroll down the page)
-- Mother of God enthroned, fresco *New!*

Links Menu

The Weeping Icon of Marijapovch

ICONOGRAPHY. Sacred Painting ln Subcarpathian Rus'

The weeping icon of Klokochovo

St. Maxim Sandovich


In the Middle Ages, fresco-painting in Macedonia reached a level equal to that of the Byzantine Empire. More on this in "The Cultural History of Macedonia"

*F* Macedonia. Cultural Heritage.
In the links at the bottom of the page: click link Fresco-painting

*F* Photo Galleries - Macedonian Orthodox Church
==> 115 superb, high quality images

*F* *M* (Hellenic) Macedonia
==> 92 Frescoes
==> 29 Mosaics

Macedonian Icons : 11 good images of well known icons of Macedonia with pertinent details

Links Menu

-- 32 good quality images of icons from the 11th to the 19th centuries.

ICONS OF MACEDONIA (Kosta Balabanov)
-- 53 icon images of superb quality with detailed descriptions placed in their historical perspective; historical events are also detailed ! In short, a fantastic site !

*F* Some of Macedonia's many frescoes (Yvan Chorbev)

A selection of icons (Yvan Chorbev)

Dead link*F* Macedonia Cultural Heritage - The Middle Ages (Aneta Serafimova) The largest preserved cycle of frescoes in European art of the 11th century is that in St. Sophia in Ohrid, from the time of Archbishop Leo (1037-56). Excellent site.
-- 80 images, good quailty ==> All these links are all DEAD !

Virgin Orans, fresco
Macedonia, 13th c.



The cave church of St. Archangel Mikhail in Radozhda


*F* Frescoes of the Saint Triphon monastery near Skopje


15 Superb Icons from Struga *New!*
(Father Stefan Sandzhakoski)

==> icon of St. John the Baptist

*F* Later Byzantine Art (Frescoes) & Architecture (Constantinople and Balkans) *New!*


Links Menu
-- Romania's Painted Churches & Monasteries
-- Also see, further down : Monasteries of Bukovina

Humor Monastery
-- 23 images
-- 21 images
-- 2 images

Moldovita Monastery
-- 20 images

Voronet Monastery
-- 20 images
-- 11 images
Links Menu

Sucevita Monastery
-- 38 images
-- 23 images

Dragomirna Monastery
-- 33 images

Orthodox Page of Romania (Crez-Pagina Ortodoxa Româneasca)
Home Page .
Scroll one screen down to bottom of page. You will see 4 links; each of these provides access to a number of icons as follows :

Iconostas Virtual
-- virtual iconostasis

Icoane Vechi Romanesti
--12 icons of the 19th century
Links Menu

LINKS . Scroll to bottom of page. You will see a box with links. They are links to both monasteries (Manastiri Ortodoxe) and icons. Not all are clickable, but you can try. Following are 4 of them (A, B, C, D) which I found accessable. The 4th link (Icoane din Banat) provides access to several different types of marian icons.

(A) Manastirea Saraca
now click on Iconostas
This leads to 6 interesting links (the last one being a link to images in the catacombs) :
-- 6 icons of Christ
-- 4 icons of the Mother of God
-- 10 icons (9 of Christ and 1 of the Virgin)
-- 57 icons of Saints
-- 4 famous icons
-- 12 images of the catacombs
See The Catacombs in General References
for more catacomb images
Links Menu

(B) Manastirile Athosului si Meteorele
-- Interior of the Vatopedi Church, Mount Athos

(C) Manastiri din Bucovina (Monasteries of Bukovina)
>> see ART OF THE FRESCO above

CREDO.RO Portal Crestin-Ortodox (Christian-Orthodox Portal)
Many of these links are to contemporary iconographers who are listed in the Contemporary Iconographers' Index-Imagebase
Click the links of recommended sites shown to the right
Links Menu

Orthodox Resources (one of the sites recommended above) ==> many (250?) mostly contemporary icons of the saints of each day, per month; quality images measuring approx. 400 x 540 pixels (the icons appear to be copies of the site

BANATULUI MUSEUM, ART SECTION - ANCIENT ORTHODOX ICONS: Muzeul Banatului, click Sectia de Arta Scroll down one screen to "Icoane ortodoxe vechi (1) (2) (3)" , then click each of the 3 links:
-- 11 icons
-- 11 icons
-- 9 icons
-- Mother of God Kyriotissa (Enthroned)
Links Menu
-- Mother of God Hodegetria
-- Christ Pantocrator

Muzeul Banatului - Sectia de Etnografie
==> 4 icons on glass, 19th Century.

Romanian Icons of the Mother of God (Maica Domnului). Little information in terms of source, location... -- 84 good quality images

ORTODOXIA IN AMERICA DE NORD. BOR Sf Ap. Andrei, Mississauga, Ont. You may try this link [ ]. If it works, click on 'Enter' to see a Flash presentation of the Credo and hear a Romanian choir singing Orthodox chants. Interesting and well done !

THE HOLY TRINITY - Reverse glass painting in oils

Romanian icons
(The site also allows you to send an iconogram)
Links Menu

Icon gallery of the Greek-Catholic Church in Romania
-- 100-200 images

The holy weeping icon of the Mother of God, from the Monastery of Nicula

Window to Romania - Links Directory - Religion and Orthodoxy

Mitropolia Ortodoxa Româna a Europei Occidentale si Meridionale ==> 15 icons

Our Lady of Skrpjeli

Our Lady of Skrpjeli, Montenegro
To read about icon of "Our Lady of Skrpjeli" proceed as follows :
- Click following link to page "Our Lady of Philerme" ; scroll to bottom
- Click link "The National Museum of Montenegro" ; scroll to bottom
- Click link "Heritage"
- Under Monuments click "Church of Mother of God of Skrpjeli"
- Scroll down page to icon of "Our Lady of Skrpjeli" , painted by the famous painter Lovro Dobricevic by the middle of the 15th century.
Links Menu
- Likewise you can explore the other links under 'Monuments'

After decades of Communist rule in former Yugoslavia Orthodox monasteries are enjoying a revival ==> excellent article centered around the Decani Monastery.

Explore Serbia ==> map

Treasures of Serbia ==> 16 icons

*F* The Official Website of the Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Raska and Prizren ==> Scroll down to beyond the middle of the page to see the links to byzantine art in several monasteries "The Art of our Famous Monasteries"

- *F* Art of Decani Monastery, Part 1 ==> 6 frescoes

- *F* Art of Decani Monast., Part 2 ==> 4 frescoes, 1 icon

- *F* Decani frescoes. Click link that follows to be taken directly to frescoes not included above ==> 36 frescoes

- Present-day Icon Studio : ==> 4 contemporary icons. See the beautiful icon of the Mother of God Glykophilousa by Fr. Arsenios to the left, higher up.

- *F* Gracanica Monastery1 : ==> 4 frescoes, 1 icon

- *F* Gracanica Monastery2 : ==> 11 frescoes

- *F* Patriarchate of Pec1 ==> 10 frescoes

- *F* Patriarchate of Pec2 ==> 10 images

- *F* The Church of the Holy Virgin of Ljevis in Prizren
==> several images, including a beautiful fresco of Christ

- Also click the remaining 3 links of "The Art of our Famous Monasteries" (above)

News from Kosovo or
Links Menu

Zica Monastery

ST. LUKE'S SERBIAN ORTHODOX MISSION : Serbian Orthodox chants, medieval monasteries, churches, icons, iconography, prayers, fasting cookbook, articles on Orthodoxy many links: click on Icons (or go directly to the site )
-- 24 old Serbian icons (very good); also click on the various monasteries, both text links and images  

St. Ephraim the Syrian's Thought and Imagery as an Inspiration to Byzantine Artists
by Zaga GAVRILOVIC, University of Birmingham, UK
==> 27 image details of the Last Judgment, Decani Monastery

Sopocani Monastery ==> 10 frescoes and a lot of history

Sitemap with complete Fresco Archive
==> many frescoes can be enlarged to a very large size

Serbian Medieval History - Decani - Details and Frescoes

*F* Blago Treasure - A Wealth of Serbian frescoes. *New!*
Virtual reality catalog with panoramic pictures.

*F* - Serbian Orthodox Church - Superb Frescoes of the 12th - 20th c. ==> 95 frescoes     Superb!    *New!*
--- Sitemap :
--- Icons of Christ :
--- Icons of the Theotokos :
--- Icons of Angels :
--- Icons of Saints :
--- Icons of special events and scenes :
--- Churches and Monasteries :

The Balkans - Other Sites (Unspecified Location) 

*F* Icons, Frescoes, Holy Fathers, Monasteries and more... ( *New!*

Pilgrimage to Orthodox Serbia *New!*

Descent from the Cross
Cyprus, 14th century


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The Passions of Christ
The Crucifixion

Christ Pantokrator in
the Dome of the Church
of Lagoudera, 1192

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Chist Pantocrator in the
dome of the
All Saints Church
in Nicosia, Cyprus
George Goutsev

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Maps of Cyprus :  1  2



*F* Byzantine Cyprus I
-- 17 frescoes

*F* Byzantine Cyprus II
-- 23 frescoes

ICONS OF CYPRUS. The Passions of Christ, A journey through Byzantine art : A journey through Byzantine icons that were painted and exhibited in Cyprus from the early Byzantine period (4th-7th centuries) until the period of the first Turkish occupation (1570-1878) | -- 15 icons

The All Saints Church in Nicosia, in particular the 'wallpainting' of Christ Pantocrator and all the Saints in its dome, clearly shows us that icon painting is not just 'something of the past'. Click the following link or click on the image to the left to see this masterpiece
The dome was decorated by the brilliant (contemporary) Bulgarian artist
George GOUTSEV (clicking the link will take you to the Contemporary Byzantine Icons page for more on the artist and see more of his works).

*F* Cyprus: 25+ images of frescoes, mosaics and churches

Asinou Church, Cyprus

The Menil Collection
-- 2 frescoes / The Byzantine Fresco Chapel Museum

Thirteenth-century fresco of Christ Pantokrator ("All Sovereign") from the Church of St. Themonianos (The Menil Foundation)
Large image:

Monastery of Kykkos - The Museum

Note: Also see ART THEFT ON A GIGANTIC SCALE in General References, Special Reports

Cyprus, Land van Archeologie en Geschiedenis
(Cyprus, Country with Archeology and History)
Homepage of Jan de Vries, travel consultant. Interesting site with some very nice frescoes. Site is in Dutch.

Cultural Interactions in Cyprus 1191- 1571: Byzantine and Italian Art *New!*
By : Ioannis Á. Eliades, University of Cyprus. PDF file - 10 pages of English text with 18 images.
Very interesting and informative.

Theotokos the Immaculate
Crete 15th century


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Mount Athos

The Entombment of Chist
Cretan School, 17th c.
Emmanuel Tzanes

Christ Pantokrator

Maps of Greece :  1  2  3  4  5

First a few words about Crete and Mount Athos as they occupied such a unique place in ancient iconography.

Crete became a center of Byzantine art after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Venetians had acquired the island in 1204 and, although nominally Italian, it remained culturally a Byzantine civilisation until well into the 16th century. The Venetians themselves much liked to have their religious pictures done in the 'maniera Greca' and preferably by Cretan painters.

*F* With a pleasant narrative style Ben van Dongen shows us the great beauty of the Cretan Byzantine art in his site A World of Byzantine Art, Wall Paintings in Crete, while at the same time providing us with a Brief History of Crete.

A Brief History of Crete (Ben van Dongen)

Click here to see Icons of Crete.

Map of Mount Athos

Mount Athos is a self-governed part of the Greek state, subject to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with regard to its political affairs and to the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople with regard to its religious affairs. It is divided into twenty self-governed territories, one for each of its twenty monasteries.
     Mount Athos has been the heart of Christian Orthodox monastic life for more than 1000 years. It has the largest collection of Christian art in the world.
     Mount Athos is situated on a peninsula, which you can see from the following map, showing all 20 monasteries .

An Introduction to Mount Athos (Fr. Maximos Politis, Costas Cotsaces, Christos Yfoulis, Michalis Pappas, Prof. Ioannis Pitas)

Links Menu
Mount Athos, The garden of the Mother of God

Click this line to see the many icons, frescoes and mosaics of Mount Athos



Benaki Museum ==> 6 icons
Icons and frescoes at the Benaki Museum of Athens in honor of the Jubilee of the Church:

(1) Icons of the Virgin Mary
-- 10 nice icons

(2) Theophanes the Cretan (not to be confused with Theophanes the Greek)
-- 13 icons of the Holy Passion of Our Lord
Links Menu

(3) *F* Manuel Panselinos -- 63 frescoes
Hellenic Ministry of Culture, BYZANTINE MUSEUM of Athens -- 5 icons
HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Paul and Alexandra Kanellopoulos' Museum -- 4 icons

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, The Byzantine Museum of Corfu (one of the most significant in Greece; it is housed in the church of the Blessed Virgin Antivouniotissa) -- 5 icons
The Byzantine Museum -- 3 icons

Links Menu
Chania (Crete)

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Collection of Chania -- 1 beautiful icon by Emmanuel Tzanes of St. George killing the dragon:
Crete (Icons)

*F* A WORLD OF BYZANTINE ART, WALL PAINTINGS IN CRETE (Ben van Dongen) : Cretan frescoes
-- 89 images. Very interesting and well presented ! Note that some frescoes are quite unusual as can be seen form the image of the Virgin and Child, Vahti, Crete, shown to the left, higher up the page. Once it gets the attention, this image makes one think.

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Collection of St. Catherine of Sinai at Herakleion -- 3 beautiful icons, seemingly somewhat untraditional, by Michael Damaskenos, a Cretan iconographer of the 16th century
Links Menu

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Museum of the Toplou Monastery in Crete -- 3 icons

(Paul Halsall, Fordham, New York City's Jesuit University):

- Christ Pantokrator end of 15th c.
- Virgin Amolyntos (the Immaculate Virgin) 16th c.
- Virgin and St. Nicholas, portable icon. date?
- John Kornaros: "Great You Are my Lord", 1770
     - Detail: The Holy Trinity and Angels
     - Detail: The Virgin, Adam and Eve  

Links Menu
*F* Crete Tournet -- 17 frescoes and several island views. To see all frescoes, click on "More Photos" underneath the fresco of the Nativity, or click the link that follows.
- an excellent site with interesting reading and beautiful images; frames are used with links to 6 chapters; of these, 3 deal with Crete; the other 3 are shown here as well, even though they do not deal with Crete; if your browser cannot handle frames then the 3 Cretan School sites can be accessed by their own links shown below;
Links Menu

-- 23 images (combined total as detailed)

- chapter (1) Introduction -- 1 icon: St. Catherine (beautiful)
- chapter (2) Last Macedonian School -- 2 images (1 mural, 1 icon)
- chapter (3) Cretan School 1 - Emergence of the Cretan School -- 2 beautiful icons, high quality
- chapter (4) Cretan School 2 -- 8 images (2 frescoes and 6 icons), high quality, all of Theophanes the Cretan
- chapter (5) Northwestern Greece School -- 1 beautiful icon of The Annunciation
- chapter (6) Cretan School 3 -- Cretan portable icons online
-- 9 beautiful icons Greece Crete
Links Menu


HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Byzantine Museum of Kastoria ==> 11 icons ; icons 3, 10, and 11 are particularly beautiful (Christ Pantocrator and Virgin Hodegetria)
Macedonian Heritage - Byzantine Kastoria *F* *M* Frescoes and Mosaics found here can be found also in (Hellenic) Macedonia a few lines further down. At this location, however, historic comments are related which makes for interesting reading.


HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Collection of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine art of Kythera (Attica) -- 3 icons of the 17th century
(Hellenic) Macedonia

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*F* *M* Macedonian Heritage
14 Icons
92 Frescoes
29 Mosaics Also Manuscripts, Embroideries, Maps, and more...

Mani (Peloponnese)   *New!*

The Raising of Lazarus (left), and the
Dormition (Koimisis) of the Virgin (right).
Frescoes in Milia, Mani, Greece.

            - By John Chapman - 
              Brief Introduction

Mani covers the southernmost middle peninsula of the Peloponnese (map1) and (map3-inset) from Kambos in the north west (about 15 km south east of Kalamata) to Cape Taenaron (Akra Tainaron) in the deep south (map2) and (map3).

Over the course of the past 6 or 7 years (from 1998 or 1999 to 2006), John Chapman visited the many Byzantine and post Byzantine churches in this region, and the frescoes they are decorated with. In his website, John Chapman shares with us this beauty, tells us about the history of this part of Greece and shows us its stunning scenery. Very interesting and very beautiful, it is one of the best sites I have seen on the web. btw, quite a few of the rotating images you may have seen on the (Icons Explained) Welcome Page are taken from his site (courtesy John Chapman).
Mount Athos (icons, frescoes and mosaics)

The Chilandar Monastery
Links Menu
Chilandar Monastery
(scroll down for more pictures) -- 3 beautiful icons

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Mount Athos : Icons of the Monastery of Stavronikita. Many of the icons shown were painted by Theophanes the Cretan; each icon is accompanied by an historical narrative -- 33 images

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Mount Athos Treasures . Click portable icons
-- 136 beautiful icons with descriptions & bibliography

*F* *M* MACEDONIAN HERITAGE, Mount Athos, The Holy Mountain : An on-line review of Macedonia related affairs >> click Art, then scroll down the page ==> 33 images

MONASTERIES : Mount Athos and Meteor (a Romanian site - Manastirile Athosului si Meteorele) -- many images !

MOUNT ATHOS, Monastery of Chilander: Icon of Christ Pantokrator, treasury of Chilander, 13th century (Paul Halsall, Fordham, New York City's Jesuit University)

MOUNT ATHOS, Monastery of Dionysos: St. John the Evangelist, 11th century
(Paul Halsall, Fordham, New York City's Jesuit University)

MOUNT ATHOS, Monastery of Dionysos: Prayer of Jesus in Gethsemene, 11th century (Paul Halsall, Fordham, New York City's Jesuit University)
Links Menu


A selection of Mount Athos portable icons

Christ Pantocrator, 1743
Icon from the iconostasis in
the "Transfiguration" chapel,
the Konak of Zograph
Monastery in Karyes
78x58,5 cm

Ecumenical Patriarchate
Click on Icons ==> 30 icons


ST. BONAVENTURE UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK : The Mother of God Enthroned, Patmos Monastery, second half of the 15th century
The "Jerusalem of the Aegean" is one way of describing Patmos or Patnos, as it was referred to in one 5th century inscription. It was here that St. John the Theologian was exiled between 95 and 97 A.D. and was inspired to write the Book of Revelation or Apocalypse. Patmos is one of the Dodecanese islands. Click link to see map
-- Shown to the left is the icon of The Mother of God Enthroned by Andreas Ritzos.


Our Lady of Philerme (Philermos)
Our Lady of Philerme has been highly venerated throughout the centuries, the reason for it being the strong belief that the icon bears a very close resemblance to the Virgin Mary.


*F* Saint Demetrius and two children

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Museum of Byzantine Culture.
Late Byzantine Period
-- 3 icons, good quality images
Note: The new official website of the Museum is:

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Museum of Byzantine Culture:
-- icon of the Virgin Dexiokratoussa, c. 1200.

Greece - Other Sites (Unspecified Location)

Shown to the right is a beautiful and very colorful icon of St. Anna, the Holy Virgin, and Christ Child. The 15th century icon is from the church of St. Nikolaos of Molos, and measures 86,9 x 60,5 x 2 cm. Museum of Zakynthos.

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE, Ceremony and Faith - Byzantine Art and the Divine Liturgy -- 25 icons
HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE: A list of all Byzantine Museums & Collections. Most of these, including the icons, have been referred to elsewhere.
Links Menu

HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE: A list of all Museums, Monuments and Archaeological Sites. Most of these, including the icons, have been referred to elsewhere.

*F* MYRIOBIBLOS - On Line Library of the Church of Greece -- 31 images

Greek-Orthodox Icons from the Middle Ages - Compiled by Nikolaos Provatas ==> Superb !

The Monasteries of Meteora
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*M* The Good Shepherd
mosaic (detail), Ravenna


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Pantokrator, St. Vitalis,
Ravenna, 7th c.

Christ Pantokrator, Cefalu,
Sicily,12th c.


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Scene of Abraham
offering Isaac

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Mother of God Hodegetria
"Salus Populi Romani"
Santa Maria Maggiore
Rome, VIIIth century

Mother of God Hodegetria
Moscow - 19th c.
(Gallerie di palazzo
Leoni Montanari)

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Madonna and Child
Italy, 1230

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Madonna and Child on a curved throne, 13th c., National Gallery of Art, Washington

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Maps of Italy :  1  2


Our Lady of Good Counsel
     1 Genazzano
     2 Also read about Our Lady of Good Counsel in Scutari, Albania

Cefalu (Sicily)

*M* New photos of Cefalu by Galen Frysinger Scroll down to see some spectacular views of Cefalu. Scroll down further and click the link "Photos of the Mosaics" ==> 7 great mosaics.
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Monreale (Sicily)

*M* Monreale - History

*M* Best of Sicily: Monreale
-- Christ Pantokrator in apse of the Cathedral of Monreale

*M* Byzantine Mosaics

*M* Duomo di Monreale

*M* Ancient Mosaics Great pictures, not limited to Monreale, but including Palermo, Rome, Venice, Ravenna and other places.

Palermo (Sicily)

*M* Mosaics in the St. Mary's of the Admiral Church, Palermo
-- 8 mosaics
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*M* THE EARLY CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS AND MOSAICS OF RAVENNA (C/1996) Ravenna was the seat of the Roman Empire in the fifth century and then of Byzantine Italy until the eighth century. It has a unique collection of mosaics and early Christian monuments. All eight (8) buildings -- the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, the Neonian Baptistery, the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, the Arian Baptistery, the Archiepiscopal Chapel, the Mausoleum of Theodoric, the Church of San Vitale, the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe -- were constructed in the fifth and sixth centuries. All show great artistic skill, including a wonderful blend of Greco-Roman tradition, Christian iconography and oriental and western styles.
(Dr. Rozmeri Basic)

The magi presenting their gifts

*M* Guide to Byzantine Treasures - Ravenna, the world's richest heritage of 5th and 6th century mosaics -

*M* Antique and Byzantine Mosaics in Ravenna: A Gallery of Outstanding Masterworks (Spätantike und byzantinische Mosaiken in Ravenna: eine Bildergalerie exemplarischer Meisterwerke) ==> 25 mosaics

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*M* Ravenna Mosaics (6th - 7th century)
-- 50 mosaics

*M* Ravenna - Mosaics by Darren New -- 11 mosaics
(Note: click 'up' to see other pages of same site with access to many images of Italian churches)

*M* Byzantine mosaics

The Churches of Ravenna


VIRGIN SALUS POPULI ROMANI ("Salut du peuple romain")
Shown to the left is the "Virgin Salus Populi Romani". It is rarely seen, and even more rarely seen in color. Dating back to the 8th century, it is the major Italian shrine and kept in the for links to still more images
(Copied from Icons Explained image
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The Santa Maria Maggiore Basilica *New!*

*M* Rome - Apse Mosaics

*M* San Pudenziana: Apse mosaic A.D. 390, Christ Enthroned and Apostles
(New) Source: Late Antique and Early Christian Art
Another image can be seen in next link.
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*M* Golden Mosaics in Rome
==> 12 mosaics

If you are interested in Rome's churches, here is Stuardt Clarke's site of 'Churches of Rome'

Torcello *New!*

Virgin and Child, mosaic 8th-9th c.?
Santa Maria Assunta Cathedral, Torcello
Courtesy / Copy right Travel Adventures

*M* Quote "Of all the islands of the lagoon, Torcello, the so-called Mother of Venice, offers the most charm. It was the first settlement in the lagoon, during the 5th Century. A legend tells that St. Mark stopped here during his journey to Aquileia. (And it is still a mystery the discovery, in 1983, of an Egyptian Isis and Horus little statue.) The cathedral, Santa Maria Assunta, is a masterpiece, with its gorgeous floor and mosaics: the original church was built in the 7th century; the bell tower was added in 11th century, and the interior has a byzantine structure and is enricihed with mosaics." Source: Ancient Mosaics (Norman Tellis) Milan, Ravenna, Venice, TORCELLO, Pompei, Rome, Naples, Palermo, Monreale, Istanbul

*M* Torcello and the famous Santa Maria Assunta Cathedral with mosaics (8th-9th c.?)

*M* Mosaic of the Mother of God in the Santa Maria Assunta Cathedral on Torcello Island
- ==> good summary (text)

*M* The Last Judgement - Torcello Mosaic

*M* Christ in Glory, mosaic, 8th-9th c.?


*M* San Marco Basilica
There is a lot of clicking, because there is a lot to see. Example : Click main screen, Virtual Basilica, Thematic itineraries, St. Marc, Further information. Now scroll down, then click Chapel of St. Peter and then Chapel of St. Clement ==> 16 mosaics

San Marco Basilica2. Many images.
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Italy - Other Sites (Unspecified Location)

NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART : Byzantine Art and Painting in Italy during the 1200s and 1300s (of all links this may be the only one with images that aren't 'pure' byzantine) :

Gallerie di Pilazzo Leoni Montanari with close to 400 old Russian icons ==> since this exhibition regards Russian icons, the links has been included under Russia 'Unspecified'.

Madonna and Child. By Berlinghiero (Italian, Lucchese). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Click link below, scroll one screen down on the page, then click on image of 'Madonna and Child'. See icon to the left.

Mother of God Eleousa


Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne, 13th c.
Icon or Altar piece? Reflections on the Madonnas of the Kahn and Mellon collection
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Virgin and Child Enthroned 1260s, margarit de aritio

The Virgin and Child Enthroned, with Scenes of the Nativity and the Lives of the Saints', signed margarit de aritio me fecit, 1260s. National Gallery, London.


Pieta, Saris Museum, Bardejov, Slovakia
17th century

Slovakia &
Czech Republic

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In You rejoices, oh Full of Grace,
All Creation

Mother of God Glykophilousa (in Russia: Umilenie)

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Maps : Slovakia & Czech Republic :  1  2


Bardejov (SLOVAKIA)

Icons of the Saris Museum in Bardejov
==> 20 rarely seen ancient icons



Slovakia and Czech Republic - Other Sites (Unspecified Location)

Subcarpathian Rus' - Who - Where... *New!*


Jesus Christ, King of Mercy
Vilnius, Lithuania, 20th c.

& Poland

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Queen of Mercy
Vilnius, Lithuania
16th century

(Also known as the
'Ostra Brama' icon)

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Our Lady of Czestochowa
('Black Madonna')

The Annunciation
Lithunian Art Museum

Maps : Lithuania & Poland :  1  2




The icon of the Virgin Mary Queen of Mercy, Vilnius, Lithuania, 16th century (see thumbnail image above), is a miraculous Catholic icon, greatly venerated in Poland and Lithuania, and also very well known in Russia following the division of Poland. Just like The Holy Virgin precedes her Son in time, Mary Queen of Mercy (16th century) precedes her Son Jesus Christ King of Mercy (20th century) in Vilnius, Lithuania. Also see: Icons of the Virgin of Vilnius 'Ostra Brama'

History of the icon of Our Lady of Ostra Brama
More on the meaning of the Ostra Brama icon

The Silver Icon of Our Lady of Ostra Brama
The icon of Jesus Christ King of Mercy.
In the strict sense of 'byzantine icons' the image of Jesus Christ King of Mercy is not an icon as no mention of it is made in the Bible. Nonetheless, this [20th century contemporary] icon of Jesus is shown here because of its very special miraculous history (as well, it seems to be linked to the above mentioned icon of Mary Queen of Mercy). Here is a short history of the icon:

On 22 February 1931, in the convent of the Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy in Plock, Poland, Sister Faustine ( was in her cell. Some time later she wrote in her diary : « In the evening, when I was in my cell, I saw the Lord Jesus clothed in a white garment. One hand [was] raised in the gesture of blessing, the other was touching the garment at the breast. From beneath the garment, slightly drawn aside at the breast, there were emanating two large rays, one red, the other pale. In silence I kept my gaze fixed on the Lord; my soul was struck with awe, but also with great joy. After a while Jesus said to me : "Paint an image according to the pattern you see, with the signature : « Jesus, I trust in You ». I desire that this image be venerated, first in your chapel, and [then] throughout the world. I promise that the soul that will venerate this image will not perish. I also promise victory over [its] enemies already here on earth, especially at the hour of death. I Myself will defend it as My own glory." »

More details can be found in the following books and links:
(1) Winowska M., L'Icône du Christ miséricordieux
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(Journal intime de Soeur Faustine),
Éditions Saint-Paul, Versailles, 1973
(2) Kowalska M. Faustine, Diary - Divine Mercy in My Soul.
Marians of the Immaculate Conception, Stockbridge, Mass., 1999
     English, Table of Contents:
     Français, Table de Matières:
(3) Cracow, Poland "Divine Mercy"

The Divine Mercy, Living the Message of Mercy



Our Lady of Czestochowa (also referred to as 'The Black Madonna') is the Queen and Protector of Poland. It is one of the most famous icons of Europe and has a long history. It is said that the icon was first painted by Saint Luke. More details can be found in the following link(s) :
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The most beautiful icons in Polish collections ==> 8 icons

Lithuania & Poland - Other Sites (Unspecified Location)

Prawoslawia Ikonografia
==> 67 high quality images

The Annunciation - *New!* ==> 2 icons

Virgin Hodegetria
of Smolensk


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Christ Pantokrator
Belarus, 16th c.

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Maps of Belarus :  1  2


Icons of Belarus are different from the traditional Russian icons. The main cause for this is the influence of Western art.

Belarusian School of Icon Painting

Icon painting in Belarus, 15 th - 18 th centuries

15 th - 16 th centuries ==> 8 icons

17 th century ==> 27 icons

18 th century ==> 57 icons

Mother of God Volhynia
Ukraine, 14th century


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The histories of Russia and Ukraine are fascinating
and intimately linked together. Which is why they
are shown together. It is interesting and
useful to read. To do so, click the link below

Maps of Ukraine :  1  2


Virgin Orans
St. Sophia Cathedral
Kiev, 11th century *M*


*M* St. Sophia Cathedral. The St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev is one of the first sites that one wants to visit. Built to rival the St. Sophia Cathedral in Constantinople, it contains many interesting mosaics and frescoes of the 11th century, one of them being the mosaic of the Virgin Orans shown to the right. This mosaic icon sometimes is referred to also as the Virgin "Undestructible Wall".

*F* The next link shows you more of the Ukraine . Scroll down the page to Kyiv (or other place of interest), then click any of the 6 links or scroll the page down further to see more of Kiev. Besides all the beautiful images of the church, there some -- 20 icons and frescoes to admire.
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The Kiev School produced many exquisite works of art,
some of which are shown on this page:

ARCHDIOCESE OF LVIV: UKRAINIAN ICONS, UGCC (Official website of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church )
-- 24 images, good quality, good descriptions

RUSSIAN PAINTING (Alexander Boguslawski): Kiev School
-- 7 beautiful images & links giving access to many more (see 'Icon Painting' in ‘unspecified location’) Christ Acheiropoietos (icon not made by the hand of man) | Virgin Great Panagia | Angel with the Golden Hair .....

Mother of God (Theotokos)
of Vladimir, 12th c.


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The histories of Russia and Ukraine are intimately linked together. Which is why they are shown together. It is interesting and useful to read. To do so, click the link below

Virgin Orans
The Great Panaghia
of Yaroslavl, 13th c.

Maps of Russia :  1  2  3  4

Belozersk - Kirillov

RUSSIAN ICON TOUR - Kirillov page

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Kostroma - Palekh

RUSSIAN ICON TOUR - Palekh and Kostroma Page

Orthodox Art - Museum objects offered by "The Ipatievskiy Monastery"
State Museum And Exhibition Center ROSIZO, Moscow - Orthodox Art ==> 11 icons

State Museum And Exhibition Center ROSIZO, Moscow - The Northern Letters ==> 17 icons



Old Russian Art -- 12 very good images

Russian SunSITE (Sun microsystems): Andrei Rublev Museum. At present the museum has in its possession a collection of 14th-19th century icons of the Moscow, Tver and Northern schools, fragments of monumental painting, early Russian wooden sculptures and facsimile copies of frescoes -- 4 Russian icons

RUSSIAN PAINTING (Alexander Boguslawski): Moscow School
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-- 7 beautiful images & links giving access to many more (see 'Icon Painting' in ‘unspecified location’)

Russian icons from theTretyakov Gallery in Moscow (Fondation Pierre Gianadda) -- 3 images with descriptions
If the above link doesn't work then click the link Fondation Pierre Gianadda and browse the site for Icon Expositions - present / past (actuelles / antérieures).

Christ in Glory
By Andrei Rublev
Click to enlarge

The Cathedral of Christ the Savior
The Cathedral of Christ the Savior commemorates the Divine Intercession that lead to the Russian victory over Napoleon. Thus, it is both a religious and a historical monument. Therefore, the frescoes include both religious and historical figures and events. Three images are shown in the column to the left : (1) Exterior View (2) Interior View (3) The Mother of God of Kazan

The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow -- 2 images.
The icon of Christ in Glory by Andrei Rublev, shown to the right, is exhibited there also. In enlarged image, click the 4-arrow symbol to further enlarge.

ST. TIKHON'S ORTHODOX THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, Moscow. Russian Icons -- Virtual Catalogue (page in Russian); included are 467 icons as shown below. Also see next link which is a partly English site with many of the same icons.

1. Icons of Ancient Russia, XI-XVI c. - Icons of Christ
Links Menu -- 88 icons

2. Icons of Ancient Russia, XI-XVI c. - Icons of the Mother of God -- 40 icons

3. Icons of Ancient Russia, XI-XVI c. - Church Icons -- 48 icons 

4. Selected Icons of the Most Holy Theotokos -- 151 icons

5. Icons of the Novgorod School -- 52 icons

6. Icons of Ancient Pskov, XIII-XVI c. -- 24 icons

7. Art of Ancient Tver -- 44 icons

8. Selection of Ancient Russian Icons from the Collection of Paul Korin -- 20 icons

Russian Icons. Many icons also shown in the foregoing link. Part of this site is in English


RUSSIAN ICON TOUR - Novgorod page

City of Novgorod, Novgorod On-line: Novgorodian Icon Painting - very good introduction -- 3 images

City of Novgorod, Novgorod On-line:
- Icons sorted by date (1)
- Icons sorted by date (2)
- Icons sorted by subject
Very nice range of images of good quality -- 185 icons

Novgorod Icon Painting in the 12th - 16th Centuries (Laboratory.Ru) - 5 pages
-- 20 icons in total; good quality images, relatively dark

RUSSIAN PAINTING (Alexander Boguslawski): Novgorod School
-- 10 beautiful images & links giving access to many more (see 'Icon Painting' in ‘unspecified location’)


Novosibirsk Art Gallery collection of Russian Icons over a 400-year long time span *New!*
- ==> 8 icons
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RUSSIAN PAINTING (Alexander Boguslawski): Pskov School
-- 3 beautiful images & links giving access to many more (see 'Icon Painting' in ‘unspecified location’)

RUSSIAN PAINTING (Alexander Boguslawski): Pskov School, 16th century. The Pskov Museum of History and Architecture, 145 x 65 cm. The Virgin from the Deesis row

Rostov - Pereslavl - Zalessky


Sergiev Posad

Old Russian Icon Painting of the 14th - 17th Century

RUSSIAN ICON TOUR - Sergiev Posad page

St. Petersburg


RUSSIAN ICON TOUR - St. Petersburg page

Click, next English, Digital Collection, Paintings. When you get here, you are give an option to browse images by artist or by title. None of this works because artists are seldom known and the titles don't indicate whether an image is a "Byzantine Icon" or a "Western image". Here is what you can do: (1) To quickly find some of the icons in the collection, enter 'Virgin' or 'icon' in the search box and click Go. Explore both the links (upper part) and the images (lower part). When finished, click 'next matches'. What you get is the links you see in the next paragraph within the yellow border. (2) Alternatively, you can select a title from a List of Titles. Just copy & paste a title in the search box and click Go ; in the List only copy the part of the title that has no brackets ==> about 50 icons.

Icons of Old Russia: 13th-17th c. ==> 5 icons, good descriptions
The Nativity of Christ, Russian Icons 15th-17th c. ==> 4 icons
The Annunciation, Novgorod, 15th-16th c.
Italian Icons of the 13th c. ==> 2 icons

The STATE RUSSIAN MUSEUM, St. Petersburg is one of the largest museums of fine art in Europe and the largest museum of Russian art in the World (along with the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow). It also holds one of Russia's leading collections of icons ==> 12 icons

Old Russian Icons of the State Russian Museum ==> 6 icons

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WEB GALLERY OF ART (Emil Kren, Daniel Marx)
-- 4 icons of the State Hermitage Museum (St. Petersburg), good quality, good descriptions. (Note: The gallery allows access to many paintings, has a built-in search engine, and will send e-cards.)

The State Monument Museum "St. Isaac's Cathedral"

*M* The mosaics in the "Savior on Spilt Blood Cathedral"


Tver School (A Japanese site in Japanese and French - click 'cancel' in dialog box to view)
-- 5 images of good quality
- Superb !

RUSSIAN ICON TOUR - Vologda page


RUSSIAN ICON TOUR - Yaroslavl page
       Navigation Tutorial

Virgin Orans, Annunciation Cathedral, Yaroslavl 12th cent.
Churches and icons of Yaroslavl

-- approx. 25 images (icons & frescoes)
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*F* *M* Russia - Other Sites (Unspecified Location)

RUSSIAN PAINTING - ICON PAINTING - by Alexander Boguslawski ==> 23 icons
Introduction - Painters - Schools. Superb ! One of the web's best sites on Byzantine Icons !

ART GALLERY - Part of Christus Rex Project -- 24 Russian icons, excellent images

Close to 400 old Russian icons of the world of sacred Orthodox art from the XIIIth to the XXth century. The collection is considered the most important in the West of that nature and comprises 130 icons of a permanent exhibition. The exhibition is of interest to both students and connoisseurs.
-- 150 quality images of beautiful icons

Russian Icons in the British Museum NEW !! & TENTATIVE ADDITION (1 April 2010)
In-House Access to 72 Russian Icons in the catalogue is on a tentative basis to ensure no conflict with Catalogue Terms *New!*

- Histoire de la Russie, par Marie-Agnès Deriglazoff
- Art et Histoire des Icones en Russie du Xe siecle a nos Jours, par Marie-Agnès Deriglazoff
- Note : If the above links don't work, look for relevant links or information in the following : |

Olga's Gallery
==> Interesting page with 11 superb(!) icon images

RUSSIAN ICONS : INDEX (George Mitrevski, Auburn University)
RUSSIAN ICONS GALLERY - SIMPLICITY AND MODERNITY - A Japanese site in Japanese, French and English. Reorganized. ==> 42 excellent images.

The (new) site has a great number of icons, and is equipped with a search utility.
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Aquarium (in Russian). Exclusively icons of the Mother of God, the better images are found at the start of the list.

ICON - ATELIER HÜSSTEGE. Restoration and sale of [mostly Russian] icons from the 17th to the 19th century -- 23 icons

Icons and Holy Places. Images and descriptions of several miraculous icons.
Icon Catalog
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Icon Collection (very good images)

A Gallery of Russian Icons ==> 11 icons,
including an icon of Longinus the Centurion. By Fiodor Zubov (1680).

Icons of Russia ? (in Russian) ==> 151 icons
(Click on icons, in 2nd row to the left, next click on figures to the right)

IKON . Nice presentation with high quality images, including the 9th c. mosaic of the Enthroned Mother of God ("Kyriotissa") of the Hagia Sophia (click links at bottom of the page)
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Online Magazine "Das Kultur". Introduction to Russian icons (in German).
- *New!*

*F* Monastery of Ferapontov: interior wall of the church decorated with frescoes
(University of Washington Librairies, Digital Collections)
Old Russian Icons
See the beautiful representation of the icon of the Theotokos of Vladimir to the left
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RUSSIAN ICON GALLERY (Tallinn, Estonia) -- 200 icons


Selected [Russian] Icons from the Amy Putnam Icon Room at the Timken Museum of Art -- 7 icons

The Mother of God icons
-- 15 beautiful icons (primarily Russian)

The Religious Antique Shop Sancta. Large selection of old Russian icons for sale -- 100+ icons
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Christian Art Gallery - icons, murals & mosaics with Dr. Oleg Uliyanov.
- In English & German | texts in English and German.
The well documented and organized Gallery is mentioned at this location since it mostly is about Russian and Ukrainian icons.
Further details can be found in the (new) (Icons Explained) Gallery - Imagebase

For sale - The largest private collection of Russian Art in Switzerland ==> 85 icons

Windows into Heaven - Russian icons of the Romanov period 1613 - 1917
presented by the Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church
==> 63 icons Iconography
Icon Gallery - Well organized - Large number of icons *New!*

*F* Hramdecor, Russia, Icons & Frescoes (sitemap) :
     Master gallery with 6 pictures
Click on each picture to see icons or frescoes or icons + frescoes
- Frescoes
- Frescoes
- Icons
- Icons and Frescoes
- Other works
- Galery "Zoloto" works

*F* Hramdecor, Russia : Icons & Frescoes : or
     Down the page, near the end, is a link to a new site named You can access several interesting pages on that site. Since frames are being used, which is not evident, it is easier to access these pages directly by using the following links :
- ==> 55 ancient frescoes
- ==> 38 contemporary frescoes
- ==> 42 icons

of Lazarus


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The Resurrection

Mother of God
« Tsilkan »
4th century, and one of the oldest icons we know.

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Maps of the Republic of Georgia :  1  2  3

The Most Holy Mother of God of Georgia

Christianity was adopted in Georgia as the state religion in A.D. 317. Georgia is rich in byzantine art. Restoration is required to preserve it. -- 126 frescoes -- 51+ icons
See this superb icon of the Most Holy Mother of God of Georgia to the right

COME AND SEE - Icons, Books and Art (scroll down one page)
6 icons as follows :
-- Raising of Lazarus
-- The Presentation of Christ
-- The Theotokos (Come and See)
-- Our Lord, God & Savior Jesus Christ, Pantocrator
-- The Martvili Icon of the Virgin
-- Mother of God "Tsilkan"
Here is a detail
     The icon dates back to either the 4th century (Come and See), or to the 9th century (Georgian Orthodox Church). Even if it dates back to the 9th century it would still rank among the oldest icons we know. Since it also is very well preserved we are looking at a rare piece of art.

Georgian Patriarchate

Byzantine art works : contemporary icons of old themes, images of ancient icons and images of ancient byzantine art work
18 items
12 items
5 items
8 items

Monasteries, Churches and other photos
Monasteries and Churches
Photos, Georgia1
Photos, Georgia2

Last Supper and Resurrection
Pictorial tile, 1721


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Sts Peter and Paul
Fresco, 930. Tatev Monastery, Armenia *F*

Early Christian Fresco
Armenia *F*

Arakel, 1356
Surkhat, Armenia


Baptism of Christ
Iconographic miniature
circa 1038

Maps of Armenia :  1  2  3


*F* Arts of Armenia [Captions of Slides]
This link provides access to 300 images, some of which can be accessed also with the links shown further down. The latter may provide more elaborate texts, however.

*F* *M* History Of Early Christian Frescoes


Virtual Armenia

Culture of Armenia

*F* Armenia Applied Art - Illuminated Manuscripts and Ceramics

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Pantocrator, Cappadocia,
Turkey, 10th century


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Pantocrator, Karanlik, Cappadocia,
Turkey, 10th century

St.George killing the
dragon, mosaic on wood
Constantinople, 14th c.

Mother of God
mosaic 10th c.
Hagia Sophia

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Mother of God
Virgin with Christ Child
on foot stool
Constantinople 950 A.D.
Museum "Catharijneconvent"
The Netherlands

Maps of Turkey :  1  2  2



Decoration of rock-cut churches in the Cappadocian country side
-- many splendid frescoes

Cappadocia online - Beautiful site - Excellent commentary !
*F* Tatlarin ==> 11 frescoes

Goreme Village
Click links of all 5 churches ==> 19 images (combined)

Goreme *Open Air Museum
Click links of these 4 churches ==> 37 images (combined)
-- *F* Karanlik (Dark) Church - 14 beautiful murals
-- *F* Chapel of St Catherine - 4 images
-- *F* Carikli (Sandals) Church - 7 images
-- *F* Tokali (Buckle) Church - 12 images

*F* The Byzantine Period (397 - 1071)

*F* More Cappadocia

Instanbul (Constantinople)

Ikon . Nice presentation with high quality images. See the mosaic of the Enthroned Mother of God (Mother of God Kyriotissa), shown to the right. It can be found in the links named 'Sophia'.

The Byzantine Monuments: Hagia Sophia

Byzantine Monuments: the Monastery of the Holy Saviour in Chora

*F* Kariye Museum: 14th-Century fresco of Christ

*F* *M* Images of Turkey - MEANDER IMAGE BANK
- Images of the house of the Holy Virgin Mary, Ephesus
- Frescoes, Tokali Church, Goreme Museum, Goreme
- Mosaics, Chora Monastery, Istanbul

*F* *M* ST. SAVIOUR OF CHORA CHURCH, CONSTANTINOPLE, 14th century (Paul Halsall, Fordham, New York City's Jesuit University): A series of 'close-ups'
- Dome Mosaic - Christ central
- Dome Mosaic - close up of Christ
- Dome Mosaic - Virgin Mary central:
- Mosaic: Christ Pantokrator
- Mosiac: Christ Pantokrator - close up
- Fresco: Virgin Mary Praying
- Fresco: the Virgin implores Christ
- Mosaic: Virgin and Child

*F* *M* Saint Saviour in Chora (Kariye) (Guide Martine) Superb site!

*F* Joseph and Mary at the Census - Fresco in the Saviour of Chora Church, Constantinople

Mother of God Hodegetria, Virgin with Christ Child on a foot stool, a relief made out of ivory. Constantinople 950 A.D. Can be seen in the Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht, The Netherlands

*M* Mosaics -- 4 images

Restoring Byzantium (Columbia University, NY). Click ENTER, then go to the links section at the bottom of the page. All images are beautiful and of very high quality.
- Images -- 6 images
- Iconography -- Quick time panoramas
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- Works of Art -- 6 images
- Restorations ==> very interesting, and the restored works are superb !
-- Raising of the daughter of Jairus
-- Virgin Eleousa on foot
-- Saint George

*M* Monastery of the Holy Savior in Chora, Istanbul (Efendi's photos) *New!* various slideshows - hundreds of photos.
Slideshow example ==> 33 mosaics

*M* Here is the same source as above but a little more in detail.
- Efendi's photos, Istanbul *New!*
Efendi's photos, Page 1,
-- The Monastery of the Holy Savior in Chora, Istanbul
Efendi's photos, Page 3. click images at bottom of screen
-- The Monastery of the Holy Savior in Chora, Istanbul 2
-- The Monastery of the Holy Savior in Chora, Istanbul 3
-- The Monastery of the Holy Savior in Chora, Istanbul 4
Continue to Efendi's photos, Page 4, 5... 82 ?
==> I did not have time today to see all pages, there is a lot to see ! You can also use the tags you see on some pages.
==> Note: there are also Syriac images (Orthodox images from Syria)

*M* Byzantine Mosaics, Photo Gallery: St. Savior in Chora (Kariye Müsezi). By Sacred Destinations, Mary and Dick Osseman. This Byzantine church, now a museum, contains one of the best collections of Byzantine mosaics in Turkey *New!*
==> 50 mosaics. This site, also mentioned in the Frescoes and Mosaics Chapter, has excellent photos, some of them the best of what I have seen.

Mother of God Hodegetria
Saint-Georges Cathedral
Beirut, 18th century

The Middle East

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Lebanon  |  Syria  |  Israel  |  Sinai (Egypt)  |  Jordan

The Dormition of St. Ephrem

Our Lady of Soufanieh

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The Descent into Hades
18th c. (Nehmat Al Musawir)
The Lady of Balamand monastery, Syria

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Saints Sergius and Bacos, 13th c.

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Saint Peter
St. Catherine's Monastery
Sinai (Egypt), 7th c.
Encaustic icon

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Mount Nebo, Jordan

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Temple carved out
of solid rock
Petra, Jordan

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Maps of :  Lebanon  Syria  Israel  Israel2  Sinai  Jordan
About Arab icons

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Orthodox Archdiocese of Beirut : Click on Orthodox Christianity (on the left), then on Icons (about mid-screen) ==> 20 - 30 icons

The Theotokos Hodigitria and The Lord's Epiphany of Kaftoun
- The Theotokos Hodigitria
- The Lord's Epiphany

Welcome to Saint-Georges (Greek) Orthodox Cathedral, the oldest Cathedral in Beirut :
-- 4 icons
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- Door of the iconostasis
- Virgin Mary Hodegetria, before 1766
- Christ Pantocrator, before 1766
- St. Catherine, before 1783

University of Balamand ?


Our Lady of Balamand - History & Heritage - ICONS by Dr. Mahmoud Zibawi . The icons shown here could be of either Lebanese or Syrian origin, but it's one or the other.
-- 13 icons

Our Lady of Soufanieh See image to the left
- The Miracle Of Damascus [Our Lady Of Soufanieh] - APPROVED by Catholic and Orthodox Bishops
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Syriac Orthodox Resources (Catholic University of America)
-- 6 icons
Margoneetho: Syriac Orthodox Resources "In Syriac, Margoneetho means 'a pearl'. Syriac Christian literature depicts the pearl variously, as a symbol of our Lord, faith and the human soul. Like an exquisite pearl hidden in an oyster, the spiritual heritage of the Syriac Orthodox Church, one of the most ancient Christian churches, remains obscure to much of the world today. The Margoneetho: Syriac Orthodox Resources web site attempts to illuminate this rich and ancient heritage. SOR is not an "official" web Site of the Syriac Orthodox Church, but receives encouragement and support from its hierarchy."

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-- 11 Ancient icons believed to be Syrian

An Exhibition of Syrian Icons -- 4 icons

Exhibition of Syrian Icons in the Museum of Damascus
--2 icons + many more available with the purchase of a CD.

Syrian icon of St. George killing the dragon

Syriac Icons
==> 20 icons *New!*
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For more on St Ephraim (St Ephrem) see :
Saint Ephrem the Syrian Library

Here is a beautiful Cretan icon of the Dormition of St Ephraim the Syrian (see thumbnail at the beginning of this section on the Middle East)

Christ Pantocrator, Syria (?)

The Convent of Our Lady of Saidnaya, considered one of the most famous convents in the Middle East, contains one of the most important and famous icons in the Christian world attributed to being painted by St. Luke. The icon's name seems to be 'Our Lady of Sardenaye'. An image of it has yet to be identified. (A QUICK GLANCE OF SYRIA [ ] .)
-- Monastery of Our Lady of Saidnaya
-- Syria: Where the Apostle Paul walked ?
-- Welcome to Saidnaya's web site

Icons Aleppan School
-- 6 icons >> some very interesting

Easter icons from a 13th c. Syriac Bible, Al-Za'faran Monastery - Turkey
-- Feet Washing
-- Crucifixion
-- Resurrection
-- Ascension

St. George Syrian Orthodox Church, Cheppaud
Click on Syriac Icons ==> 7 icons

Syrian Icons (Sameer Khayata) *New!*

The Syrian Icon - by Ayman Bitar *New!*
      Exceptional and Astounding Beauty! A Brief History of Syrian Iconography, and a Gallery of Post Byzantine Icons, put together by Ayman Bitar. The Syrian Icon - A Gallery of 18th century icons ==> 17 icons.
      Born in 1963, and himself a byzantine iconographer, his website and (contemporary) icons can soon be found in the Iconographers' Index-Imagebase as well.

Maps of Israel :  Israel  Israel2 (includes History)

History and Geography. *New!*
Click the 2nd link above, then scroll down to see a detailed map of Israel and a one-page summary of modern history of Israel and Palestine. On that page another link is provided with a more detailed History of Israel and Palestine from ancient times to today.

Holy Places (

Israel Yesterday and Today

18 June 2006 : Most links are good (left a link to State Hermitage Museum intact, even though it did not work today, but did yesterday).

Early Icons from the St. Catherine's Monastery, Sinai: 6th through 8th centuries (BELMONT UNIVERSITY, HONORS PROGRAM, Nashville, Tennessee, USA)
-- 14 icons, all encaustic, very good site

Monastery of St.Catherine. Located in the Sinai at the foot of Mount Moses, St. Catherine's Monastery houses some of the world's most ancient and best preserved icons. The link of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, N.Y., that follows will take you around on a superb virtual visit

Virgin and Child with
Ss Theodor and George
Sinai, 6th century

A lily in the wilderness. St Catherine's monastery in the Sinai, one of the most important centres of Orthodox monasticism, celebrated 17 centuries of uninterrupted asceticism last month. By Iason Athanasiadis.

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Monastery of St. Catherine > more links :  
-- Sixth century art (Dr. Rozmeri Basic) > click pp. 4 and 10

The Transfiguration
St. Catherine Monastery
Sinai, Egypt
The Art of the St. Catherine Monastery
==> 4 icons, 2 frescoes *F*

"SINAI, BYZANTIUM, RUSSIA" EXHIBITION : an exhibition of Orthodox art of the 6th-20th centuries presented by The State Hermitage Museum jointly with Monastery of St. Catherine on Sinai and St. Catherine Foundation (London)
[ ]. With this previous link out of order, you can try using this link by entering "SINAI, BYZANTIUM, RUSSIA" EXHIBITION in the search box. This may lead you to the desired result. Here is what it led to on 13 December 2004:
- St.Catherine with diring scenes. Late 12th - early 13th century
- Archangel Michael from Deesis. 13th century
- Saints Sergius and Bacos. 13th century
- The basilika of the 6th century in the Mount Sinai

The Icons of St. Catherine's Monastery In Egypt's Sinai - John Watson ==> 49 splendid icons !
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Fondation Pierre Gianadda
Treasures of the Saint Catherine Monastery, Sinai. To see the images, click on
Expositions, Expositions antérieurs, then scroll down to "Les Trésors du Monastère Sainte Catherine".

Maps of Jordan :  Jordan1  Jordan2 (interactive)  Jordan3
JORDAN      *New!*

Several events mentioned in the Old and New Testament took place on what presently is Jordan territory. For example, Jesus was baptised close to present day Amman (Capital of Jordan), and Moses saw the Promised Land from Mount Nebo, in the Amman area as well. More recently quite a few mosaics were discovered, most of them floor mosaics.
      Two places in Jordan are of particular interest : Madaba and Petra. Madaba lies just south of Amman, while Petra is situated south of Amman also, but further down, about 2 / 3 down the way from Amman to Aqaba. Click the Jordan map links above to locate these places.

Madaba is approximately 50% Christian (Greek Orthodox). However, much of the traveller and pilgrim infrastructure is run by the Franciscans. Madaba is know as "the City of Mosaics", because it harbours an enormous floor mosaic which is a map of Jerusalem and part of the Holy Land. The links that follow provide further details
- The Pal Guide, your Guide in Jordan
- Madaba's 6th-century Byzantine mosaic map showing the entire region from Jordan and Palestine
  in the north, to Egypt in the south
- Madaba's 6th century mosaic

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- Holy Land Resources
- The Mosaics of the Madaba Plateau of Jordan
- City of Mosaics


Considered by many as the most famous attraction in Jordan is the Nabatean city of Petra, which means "stone" in Greek. Petra was the capital of the Nabateans : Arabs who dominated the lands of Jordan during pre-Roman times. The Nabateans carved temples, tombs and elaborate buildings out of solid rock. Click links to see :

- Photo Gallery
- The Pal Guide, your Guide in Jordan
- Petra, Jordan

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Our Lady Myriam
with her Beloved Son
Icon by C. Gosey


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Christ, Ethiopia, around 1750
National Museum of African Art, Washington DC

Christ Merciful
Ethiopia, circa 1800
National Museum
of African Art
Washington DC

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Maps of Ethiopia :  1  2


Ethiopian icons were virtually unknown. It is likely that the work of iconographer D.C. Christopher Gosey [ ] has helped them gain exposure and attention.

Ethiopia's Religions
The majority of Ethiopian believers are Christian, with a large Muslim minority. There are still a few small Felasha Jewish communities in Ethiopia, as well. Animists are rare in Ethiopia today... Good Overview.

Here are some pictures of Ethiopia by Galen Frysinger

Ethiopian Icons Click Ethiopian Icons in upper left hand corner, then click Curator or Conservator ==> 12 icons combined

Ethiopian Icons Through the Centuries by Dr. Mahmoud Zibawi -- 25 icons

Ethiopian Icons

Ethiopian, 17th century icon depicting Christ having the crown of thorns pinned to his head - detail of a double sided icon

Ethiopia - The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church Icons

Ethiopian icon (tempera on linen-covered wood) from around 1700.
Click image to enlarge.
(Source: "Art of Ethiopia" by Holland Cotter, NYTimes.)

Art of Ethiopia - Article by Holland Cotter *New!*
Click link to the right to enlarge image.
Click link below to read the article.
Re-Printed with permission.
Courtesy / Copyright © The New York Times.

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The Flight to Egypt

Icons of the
Coptic Church

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Christ and Abbot Menas
Bawit Monastery
6th-7th c., Louvre Museum

Virgin and Child
George Guirguis
Coptic Art Studio

A Seraphim

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The Suffering of Our Savior
Icon by Dr. Isaac Fanous,
Holy Virgin Mary Coptic Orthodox Church, Los Angeles

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Baptism of Christ (undated)

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Maps of Egypt :  1


The Coptic Church is one of the oldest Christian Churches on the planet. It was St. Mark who brought Christianity to Egypt and around the year 100 it had spread throughout the country. Egypt's Copts in particular have persecuted during long periods. In this modern age, also, Copts are not only being heavily discriminated against, they are being persecuted and murdered. On 20 December 2004, BBC NEWS reported that they [the Egyptian Copts] complain of discrimination, restrictions on church construction and periodic fears that Christians are being forced to convert by Islamic extremists [ ]. That is an understatement judging by other reports (see "Manifesto" further down).
          Iconography has an important place in the Coptic Church. Coptic Orthodox icons are quite different, however, from Greek and Russian Orthodox Byzantine icons. Furthermore, in contrast with contemporary Byzantine iconography which continues to adhere, up to this very day, to the same strict guidelines that were established 1200 years ago, contemporary Coptic iconography underwent or is undergoing important changes.
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History of the Copts

Manifesto : Tragedies and Suffering of Egypt 's Copts (August 2004 update). Egyptian government openly discriminates the Christians of Egypt

The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt, the Coptic Orthodox Church Network, and the Coptic Network have several links, some of which are overlapping or share the same content. They include an historical overview from its very beginning up to the 20th century :
- or


The following are links to both ancient (Old Style) and contemporary (New Style) Coptic icons.

Coptic Icons by Caroline Wassef and Hany S. Shafik (Old Style and New Style) or
-- 24 beautiful contemporary Coptic icons

The Coptic Network - Icons (old link ). To see the icons click on small image immediately below the large image. The click CN Archives ==> 67 Coptic icon images
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Coptic Christian Paintings (Including Icons).
By Jimmy Dunn. Very interesting site! -- 18 images

Coptic Photos and Icons ( First click on Photos/Icons in the menu at the top of the page, next scroll down one screen, then, in the column Category, click on Coptic Icons and Art ==> 262 pics. The link that follows will take you there also

Holy Virgin Mary Coptic Orthodox Church - Saint Hubert QC, Canada
-- 5 icons by Dr. Isaac Fanous

"I paint with my heart"
Al-Ahram reporter Jill Kamil talks to Dr. Isaac Fanous, Egypt's famous iconographer, and pays homage to his work

Guirguis George, Coptic Art Studio, Cairo
A truly beautiful site! See icon of « Virgin and Child » to the left
-- 17 icons ; also see the murals and mosaics.
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The Apparitions Of Virgin Mary At Zeitoun Church, Egypt
- with Real Photos

Coptic Orthodox Liturgical Music

Click the following link to listen to the well known Coptic Hymn How Lovely .
Go to the Music Page for more Coptic Music.

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Holy Virgin Mary Coptic Orthodox Church in Los Angeles
All icons are written by Dr. Isaac Fanous
==> 60 icons as follows:
-- Christ Icons 4
-- Holy Virgin Mary Icons 3
-- Christ in Egypt 4
-- Events Icons 6
-- Miracles Icons 3
-- Crucifixion Icons 6
-- The Cross 3
-- Feast Icons-I 4
-- Feast Icons-II 3
-- Disciples Icons-I 7
-- Disciples Icons-II 7

Dead Links
1 October 2006 :: None of the above image links work. I am sorry to say that, of all links on this (Medieval Byzantine Icons) web page, none are so frequently out of order as the ones in the (Coptic Icons) chapter. I am starting to think that a possible way to resolve this, is to copy the images and re-publish them on an Icons Explained page. Hopefully, when receiving my email message or seeing this note, the webmasters of the Coptic sites will update the links. Thank you kindly for your collaboration, patience and understanding.

Coptic Orthodox Church Network - Sponsored by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Saint Mark, Jersey City, NJ

Christ Enthroned
St. Anthony's Monastery, Egypt
Christ Enthroned - Coptic wallpainting St. Anthony Monastery, Egypt
St. Antony's Monastery lies at the foot of Al-Qalzam Mountain near Al Zaafarana. It was founded in 356 AD just after the saint's death and is the oldest active monastery in the world. Egypt monasteries are experiencing a revival, and the monk population of St. Antony's has grown considerably in recent years.

Coptic Sources- Information on the Coptic Orthodox Church Coptic Icons

Adel Adel Nassief (Egypt) : Coptic Icons, Frescoes and Mosiacs *New!*
- in Egypt, The Netherlands, France, USA ==> 110 icons, 25 frescoes, 20 mural mosaics
(Updated 16 October 2006)

The Official Website of the Coptic Orthodox Church Centre, United Kingdom Excellent site ==> 33 icons (good images)

Awatef Farahat coptic icons

Bringing image of God to light
Dead Link

Coptic Icons and Texts
Dead Link

English Spiritual Articles

St. George Syrian Orthodox Church, Cheppaud
Click on Coptic Icons ==> Icon of Baptism of Christ (shown to the left)

Coptic icons (Arabic version) ==> ==> about 275 (contemporary) icons *New!*

The Coptic Museum *New!*
The museum houses a rare collection of ancient Christian relics including remains of architectural works, textiles, icons and old manuscripts reflecting the history of Coptic civilization.
Click Gallery, then Icons ==> 52 icons
Click Gallery, then Fresco ==> 2 frescoes
Click Gallery, then Manuscripts ==> 23 manuscripts

Coptic Monuments in Sinai (Egypt State Information Service) *New!*


Medieval Byzantine Icons, Frescoes and Mosaics

Other Major Sites :
Non-Specific with regard to Country

Each single site shows images in more than one country.

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Mother of God
Vatopedia Monastery
Mt. Athos, 13th c.

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Antique Russian Icons
- Scroll down the page.
Old Russian icons grouped by century or subject (theme). Click on the links in the white section to see the icons. Stay with the site in Russian, many of the English links don't work. Estonia
Many icons, well organized, good quality images.

BYZANTIN ICONS & ICON PAINTING (Alexander Boguslawski)
Alexander Boguslawski is Professor of Russian Studies at Rollins College, a comprehensive liberal arts institution in the USA. (Also mentioned under "Russia - Other Sites")
-- Approx. 80 icon images. Very beautiful and very well documented site!

By Paul Halsall, professor at Fordham, New York City's Jesuit University, and a well known expert in Byzantine Studies. About 30 images.

(by Yuri Koszarycz, Australian Catholic University)
The image page is part of "A Study in Church History", which is an excellent piece of work >> 18 images, excellent quality, most of which have already been shown elsewhere on this page.

-- The Festival Icons of the Orthodox Tradition: 1
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-- The Festival Icons of the Orthodox Tradition: 2
-- The Festival Icons of the Orthodox Tradition: 3
Images of Christ In the Byzantine Tradition

Community Live Journal
To see the icons, scroll down the page or click the links to the left.

Found Madonna Image of the Week Archive. Found 3 icon images of very good quality

IKONS : WINDOWS INTO HEAVEN. History: Early icons in the Balkans and Russia
(Bob Atchison)
-- 25 icons ; good description of icons and context

*M* Images of Christ in the Middle Ages Dead Link
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IMRC Russian Art Links (The Institute of Modern Russian Culture) -- a links page

*M* Index of Early Christian and Byzantine Image Pages > Beautiful site!
-- approximately 50 high quality icon images ; site also shows a great number of images of early Christian and Byzantine Art & Architecture including several mosaics (inside the Hagia Sophia Church, for example)
(Belmont University, Honors Program)

JAN MORSINK IKONEN : Jan Morsink Ikonen of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, is one of the leading Art and Antique Dealers in the World. -- 30 to 40 truly magnificent icons with good descriptions, from Russia and Greece.
Click the link below for more establishments that sell, evaluate and restore icons. Icons
- Be patient to allow loading.
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Superb !

Obraz Iconography
Very well organized and many beautiful icons.

*F* *M* St. Luke Icon Painting Center, St. Petersburg, Russia. Philip A. Davydov being the principal (contemporary) iconographer. He started his own database of Medieval Christian Icons in different Countries

Also visit the Contemporary Byzantine Icons page to see Philip Davydov's (contemporary) icons
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The Ecole Initiative - Index of Images

The Orthodox Christian Page
> click on Orthodox icons, or go directly to: Icons, XV-XIX centuries, index of inline mages
-- approximately 50 - 60 images

Theology of the icon (part of the Religion course at Harvard University)
-- 224 high quality images ; images are part of a slideshow of byzantine icons ; includes an estimated 20 non-icon images

Byzantine art - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia *New!*

Icons from Greece, the Balkans and Russia - Superb images ! *New!*
- Mother of God icons (b01) - Christ icons (i01) - Angels (a01) - Saints (s01) - Special (p01)
- Monasteries - Frescoes of the 12th - 20th Century

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The page 'ANCIENT BYZANTINE ICONS FOR SALE' essentially is an extension of the page 'MEDIEVAL BYZANTINE ICONS'. These icons are dealt with separately because they can be purchased. They all are medieval byzantine icons. If you would like to buy an ancient icon, then click the link below to go to the page 'Ancient Byzantine Icons for Sale'. If you don't have the money, then just look at the images. There are many and they are beautiful !
1000+ quality icon images, arranged by country
You can also purchase a contemporary icon, or commission an artist to make one for you. They can be very beautiful. They may not have the same 'collector value', i.e. as an art work they will not be worth as much money as a well preserved ancient icon, that can run as high as $100,000+, but they certainly are as good as ancient icons with regard to their spiritual value. Have a look at the page 'Contemporary Byzantine Icons'
Links to 7000 icon images, ordered by iconographer / studio

Top of Page     Links Menu     Frescoes & Mosaics     New Additions     SiteSearch     Translation Utility


Mother of God Hodegetria
Russia, 14th c.

*F* *M* *New!*

Exhibitions & Collections

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Diptych with Saint Prokopios and the Virgin Kykkotissa. Crusader, Saint-Jean-d'Acre or the Holy Monastery of Saint Catherine, Sinai, Egypt, ca. 1280s. The Holy Monastery of Saint Catherine, Sinai, Egypt

Byzantium, Faith and Power (1261-1557)

Saint George with scenes of his passion and miracles, early 13th c.
The Holy Monastery of Saint Catherine, Sinai, Egypt.
Click to enter Met Museum Virtual Galleries

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Special Exhibitions & Private Collections - Contents
The Chapter (Special *) Exhibitions & (Private) Collections contains - and is the continuation of - the former web page of the same name. * Note: "Special" indicates the temporary nature of the Exhibition, in contrast to "Permanent".

- Introduction
- Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC
- University of Toronto Art Centre
- Museum of Russian Icons, Clinton, MA *New!*
- More Exhibitions and Collections
- Current Exhibtions / Expositions en cour
- State Hermitage Museum Digital Collection - Titles

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At the present time (from 1990 onward), particularly in the Eastern parts of Europe, Orthodox Christians and art lovers have ample access to ancient and medieval byzantine art (icons, frescoes and mosaics), in churches, monasteries and museums. This isn't so easy in the "West". That is where special exhibitions and private collections come in.
          At one point in their lives, quite a few collectors donate(d) their collection to a public institution. This provides unique opportunities to see some of the magnificent original byzantine icons "close to home". One of them is the Malcove and Foreman Collections at the University of Toronto Art Centre. This is a permanent exhibition of approx. 100 masterworks!
          Others are (were) special exhibitions that can (could) be seen for only a limited period of time. Byzantium: Faith and Power (1261-1557) in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, definitely is the most notable of these. This splendid exhibition (it closed on 4 July 2004) showed 350 masterworks from all over the world. Sixty of these can still be seen in the Met's virtual exhibition.
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          A few other collections and past exhibitions have been added that can be seen on this page as virtual exhibitions as well.
          Finally, some sites are referenced that show us the beauty of ancient frescoes and mosaics. They can be found in the section "World Art Treasures and Monuments of Ravenna".

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC Metropolitan Museum of Art

Byzantium: Faith and Power (1261-1557) (*) March 23 - July 4, 2004

This exhibition was an extraordinary event. GreekNews reported «The Metropolitan Museum of Art has been instrumental in educating the public about the Byzantine period since the exhibition "The Age of Spirituality" in 1978, followed by "The Glory of Byzantium in 1997", and "Byzantium: Faith and Power 1261-1557" in 2004.» This major (*) international Exhibition of visual sacred art had on loan some 350 masterworks from all over the world, many of them from Europe, especially Greece; it demonstrated the artistic, cultural and spiritual significance of the last centuries of the East Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).
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Click this line to go directly to the Galleries of the Exhibition Byzantium: Faith and Power 1261-1557. Many of the Exhibition's art images can be viewed online, with full details being included. (a)
An excellent illustrated Exhibition Catalogue is available in the Museum's bookshops and online at the Met Store. Click the Exhibition Catalogue link to get to know the extraordinary contents of this Catalogue. You may want to buy it.
(a) The exhibition closed on 4 July 2004. The Met Museum virtual galleries still are accessible.

(*) "Byzantium: Faith and Power," an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, is the first major exhibition of the Palaeologan period. Only the Met's resources and reputation could have gathered the over 350 items from 150 lending institutions and individuals from 27 countries that are in the exhibition. By Perry Bialor. Also see Perry Bialor's Review.

More of the Met on Byzantium

Explore the Met's latest online feature of Byzantium: Faith and Power
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Icons and Iconoclasm in Byzantium
The Glory of Byzantium

Virgin and Child, with the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, ca. 1320

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University of Toronto Art Centre University of Toronto Art Centre

Malcove Collection
The Malcove Collection was donated to the University of Toronto Art Centre by Dr. Lillian Malcove in 1981. It comprises 50 Post-Byzantine icons dating from the 14th to the 18th century.
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Foreman Collection
In 2004 Dr. John Foreman donated half of his icon collection to the University of Toronto Art Centre. His is a collection of 55 mostly Post-Byzantine and Greek icons. The icons are housed in the Malcove Gallery Combined, the Malcove and Foreman Collections represent a significant collection of over 100 icons.
Shown to the left is the icon of the Virgin and Child, with the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.
16.5 cm x 34 cm. Dated ca. 1320. Provenance: "Venetian" or "Yugoslavian". Malcove Inventory # M82.119, Catalogue # 339. The icon was on loan to the Metropolitan Museum of Art for the Special Exhibition: Byzantium: Faith and Power. Copyright © University of Toronto Art Centre. The icon has been made available expressly for this purpose - Courtesy of the U of Toronto Art Centre.
*M* Click to see a 5th c. mosaic of the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence. It is located at the Galla Placidia Mausoleum in Ravenna (a mausoleum is a large tomb or a highly decorated building housing several tombs). Click the next link to see *M* a mosaic detail.
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Following are *M* more mosaics.

Mary Magdalene, ca. 1890

Museum of Russian Icons - Clinton, MA

The Museum of Russian Icons is a brand new museum.*New!*
Founded by Gordon Lankton in 2006, the Museum houses the largest collection of Russian icons in North America. The current collection of more than 300 icons spans six centuries from the fifteenth century to the present.

Location : Museum of Russian Icons, 203 Union Street, Clinton MA 01510, USA
Website :
Curator : Kent dur Russell, CEO & Curator
TEL (978) 598 5004 - FAX (978) 5985009 - Email :
Information : MORI-Brochure Icon Museum MA.pdf
Membership Opportunities : MORI-MembershipBrochure.pdf

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Madre della

Mother of God
of Tenderness

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Mother of God Hodegetria
Greece, 15th c.
45.5 x 35.4 cm

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More Exhibitions & Collections

Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church, Little Rock, Arkansas
Exhibition of Russian Icons of the Romanov Period 1613-1917 ==> 73 icons

Ikonen Museum Kampen (Foundation Alexander) The Netherlands *New!*

Ikonen Museum Recklinghausen Germany

James and Tatiana Jackson Collection Cedar Falls, Iowa
Icons in the The James and Tatiana Jackson Collection & Gallery can be seen in the Sacred Art Exhibition Catalog: The Holy Art of Imperial Russia, 1650-1917, by exhibition curator James Lansing Jackson. Founded by James Jackson*, the Collection icons are mostly Russian and date from the 17th to 20th century. They are part of a traveling exhibition and are not for sale at this time.
==> 80 icons with good descriptions
* James Jackson also owns, or co-owns, Jackson's Auction which is a large enterprise that auctions many different items, including ancient Russian icons. URL of auction website: There presently is no link from the Auction website to the Sacred Art Exhibition / Gallery or vice-versa. Click this line to learn more about Jackson's icon auctions.

McGhee Collection, Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art, Oklahoma

Medieval Roman Frescoes *F* Exhibition of Vatican Frescoes, Lubbock, Texas.
==> 32 Frescoes of the 12th and 13th centuries taken from Vatican Museums for display in Lubbock, in the summer of 2002.
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National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, USA
Tour : Byzantine Art and Painting in Italy during the 1200s and 1300s

Odigia Collection, The Hague, The Netherlands
The Odigia Foundation houses many very well kept icons of the 15th to 18th centuries in their museum. A number of icons have been donated to the foundation by private individuals, while others are consigned to the foundation on a permanent loan basis.
Icon Gallery Scroll down to see Galleries ==> 30 icons.
Icon to the left : Madre della Consolazione, Venetian-Cretan icon ca. 1500.

Omsk M.A. Vrubel Museum of Fine Arts, Omsk, Russia
Russian icon-painting collection
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==> 12 icons

Russian Art from the Hulmer Collection / Allegheny College
-, Meadville, PA
About ten icons are displayed in the Gallery [ ] dating from the 17th to the 19th centuries. Most are painted using oil on wood, one is painted using tempera on wood : Mother of God of Tenderness,19th c., which is the one shown to the left.

St. Benedict Abbey, Italy : "Finestra sull'Eternita" (Window on Eternity)
==> 30 Russian icons of the 16th to 19th century, of the Duška Avrese Collection, click on 'Presentazione'.

The Menil Collection
-- 2 frescoes / The Byzantine Fresco Chapel Museum
-- 13th c. fresco of Christ Pantokrator ("All Sovereign") from the Church of St. Themonianos
Large image:

Timken Museum of Art, San Diego, California ==> click image on opening page, next sitemap, then select Russian icons, or simply click right here on this line ==> 7 icons, excellent images.

University of Notre Dame - Icons of the Snite Museum of Art scroll down page to click link 'Snite list of images, or click the following direct link
-- Theotokos Eleousa, 13th century, Puglia, Italy > rare image
-- Divine Liturgie, 17th century, Crete, Greece > image of the Holy Trinity
(Note: Since God The Father is shown, this image is not approved by the Church)
-- Vita Icon of Saint Euthymios of Sardis, 1830, Asia Minor

University of Wisconsin Icon Gallery

The Velimezi Collection - Greece (70 icons) *New!*
- This link recently went dead. Here is a different link
The great ancient Greek icons of the collection also have been documented by Nano Chatzidaki (1998). Further information may be found in a Benaki museum publication, see Benaki Museum Publications /

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Current exhibitions / Expositions actuelles

Arts & Civilisations By François Mottas, Switzerland. *New!*
Click Byzance et monde byzantin - Showbyz., then Exhibitions ==> Many listings ! Excellent !
Hope the site will stay up and be maintained. Direct link

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St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum - Digital Collection


Note: besides the titles listed below, you also can input the following keywords, they will give you more results with less work :
     icons   |   St Nicholas   |   The Virgin

Chirst in Majesty (16th c.)
Christ Enthroned (16th c.)
Christ Pantocrator (2nd half 13th c.)
Deesis (Late 16th - early 17th c.)
Epiphany (Early 14th c.)

Exaltation of the Holy Cross
Holy Doors with the Annunciation (and Two Prelates, Late 16th - early 17th c.)
Icon in a Mount: Our Saviour the Pantocrator (1881)
Icon in a Setting: the Virgin of Kazan [Yakov Frolov (setting), 2nd half 18th c. (icon), 1775 (setting)]
Icon in a Setting: the Virgin of Yaroslavl (Russia, late 19th c.)

Icon with the Virgin Hodegetria, Central Panel of a Triptych (Byzantium 10th c.)
Icon with the Virgin Standing on a Pedestal, Central Panel of a Triptych (Byzantium 10th c.)
Royal Doors from an Iconostasis (with Annunciation and the Four Evangelists , 1st half 16th c.)
Royal Doors from an Iconostasis (with Annun., the Eucharist and the Four Evangelists, 16th c.)
SS Florus and Laurus (Late 15th - early 16th c.)

SS Theodore Stratilates and Theodore Tiron (15th c.)
St George and the Dragon (Late 15th - early 16th c.)
St Gregory Thaumaturgus (Probably 12th c.)
St Nicholas (13th - 14th century)
St Nicholas (Early 15th - late 16th century)

St Nicholas (Second half of the 13th - 14th century)
St Nicholas of Mozhaisk (Late 16th century)
St Nicholas with a Deesis and Selected Saints (1st half 16th c.)
St Nicholas with Scenes from his Life (1st half 16th c.)
St Paul (Late 15th c.)

St Peter (2nd half 13th c.)
The Annunciation (16th c.)
The Appearance of the Virgin to St Sergius (The Vision of St Sergius), Early 17th c.
The Birth of John the Baptist (16th c.)
The Crucifixion (2nd half 16th c.)

The Intercession of the Virgin (Pokrov) (15th c.)
The Last Judgment (16th c.)
The Last Judgment (1st half 16th c.)
The Nativity (16th c.)
The Nativity of the Virgin (1st half 16th c.)

The Prophet Elijah (2nd half 13th c.)
The Prophets Jeremiah and Habakkuk (Early 16th c.)
The Saviour (Late 16th c.)
The Transfiguration (16th c.)
The Vernicle and the Lamentation of the Virgin (15th - 16th c.)

The Virgin (16th c.)
The Virgin Hodegetria (Late 16th c.)
The Virgin Eleousa (2nd half 16th c.)
The Virgin of the Don. Hexameron and Selected Saints (16th - early 17th c.)
The Virgin of the Sign (1st half 16th c.)

The Virgin of Vladimir and Church Feasts (Early 17th c.)
The Virgin (1st half 16th c.)
Three-part Folding Icon: The Virgin of Tikhvin with Festivals (2nd half 16th c.)
Two-part Icon: The Fiery Ascent of the Prophet Elijah. St Demetrius of Thessalonika (Mid-16th c.)
Two-Sided Tablet Icon: The Old Testament Trinity (1st half 16th c.)

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*F* *M* *New!*

The Frescoes &
Mosaics Chapter

About The Frescoes & Mosaics Chapter

Church Wall Paintings and Mosaics
Principles of their arrangement and
relationship to church architecture

by Aidan Hart

Empress Theodora
of Byzantium

Click here to see the
entire 6th c. mosaic
of Empress Theodora
and her court
San Vitale, Ravenna

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(1) Hagia Sophia Interior
Constantinople, ca. 530

(2) More Hagia Sophia
(3) More Hagia Sophia
(4) More Hagia Sophia

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The Frescoes & Mosaics Chapter    (FM Chapter)

The visual art of Frescoes and Mosaics is the subject of an estimated twenty to twenty five major websites published on the Internet to date - thanks to the work of monks and priests, university professors and students, collectors and philanthropists, and private individuals who travelled all over the world !

These websites show us magnificent frescoes and mosaics, some of them of pre-iconoclastic times. Most of these Christian art works can be seen, today, in churches and monasteries because they could not as easily be destroyed by iconoclasts as icons. Others were preserved as they were located in isolated areas, like the St. Catherine Monastery in Sinai, for example.


- Byzantine Art - World Art Treasures
- Monuments of Ravenna
- Byzantine Frescoes & Mosaics - Top Websites
- Byzantine Frescoes & Mosaics - Elsewhere on this page

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Byzantine Art - World Art Treasures *F* *M*

The site "Byzantine Art, World Art Treasures" ("Art byzantin, Trésors d'Art du Monde") is part of the Jacques-Edouard Berger Foundation (Switzerland). It is equipped with a very nice viewer.
Click link to see 151 beautiful images (42 in section 1, and 109 in section 2), dating from the 5th-17th centuries; most of them are mosaics (there are some frescoes and icons as well), and most of them are in Ravenna(*), Italy.
(*) Quote" Ravenna, Italy possesses the world's richest heritage of 5th and 6th century mosaics, superior in artistic quality and iconological importance to those of any other city of the ancient and classical worlds both east (Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria) and west (Rome, Milan, Aquileia, Trier, Cologne)."

Two images, dating from the 6th century, picture the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence :
     (1) Section 1, page 1, bottom row, center image ==> "overall view"
     (2) Section 1, page 2, top row, center image ==> "close-up"

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Monuments of Ravenna *F* *M*

Here are the two same mosaic images of St. Lawrence shown on the magnificent and educational site of Dr. Rozmeri Basic You need to scroll down the page to see them. The images are smaller but more colorful. (Dr. Basic is Associate Professor of History, University of Oklahoma.)

*F* *M* Monuments of Ravenna
- part of Dr. Basic's site Early Christian and Byzantine Art :

*M* Guide to Byzantine Treasures
Ravenna, the world's richest heritage of 5th and 6th century mosaics - Excellent! - Make sure to (scroll down 2 screens) and see the eight links / headings shown below, then click each link.
- Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
- San Vitale
- Basilica di Sant'Apollinare Nuovo
- Sant'Apollinare in Classe
- The Arian Baptistery
- Neonian Baptistery
- Archiepiscopal Chapel
- Archiepiscopal Museum

Byzantine Frescoes & Mosaics - Top Websites *F* *M*
The following websites excell - through either view, image quality or historic context.
Note : Some of these sites may also be included under a pertinent country where appropriate.

The Byzantine Monuments - HAGIA SOPHIA, Little Chronicle of the Great Church *M*
- by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

- by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

*M* Guide to Byzantine Treasures - Ravenna, the world's richest heritage of 5th and 6th century mosaics -, mentioned above in detail

Byzantine Art, World Art Treasures" ("Art byzantin, Trésors d'Art du Monde") *M*
- by the Berger Foundation, mentioned above in detail

The Monuments of Ravenna *F* *M* - by Dr. Rozmeri Basic, also mentioned above in detail
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Byzantine Cyprus I - Asinou *F* - by Belmont University *

Byzantine Cyprus II - Lagoudera *F* - by Belmont University *

Hagia Sophia Interior *M*- by Belmont University *

Ravenna Mosaics (also Rome, Florence, Venice...) *M* - by Darren New

Byzantine Mosaics *M* - by Hans Zimmermann

*M* Adrian Fletcher's Paradoxplace  *New!*
  Superb Recent Photos and Insights - January 2007

*M* Byzantine Mosaics, Photo Gallery : St. Savior in Chora (Kariye Müsezi). *New!*
By Sacred Destinations, Mary and Dick Osseman : "This Byzantine church, now a museum, contains one of the best collections of Byzantine mosaics in Turkey"
==> 50 mosaics. This site, also mentioned under Constantinople, Turkey, has excellent photos, some of them the best of what I have seen.
     P.S.: The site has many links to other interesting holy places, like the house of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus, for example. The author's account and details on this is excellent. They match what I know about it as I read the book, written by Brentano, about Katarina Emmerick and her many visions.

Ancient Mosaics Italy, Turkey - by Norman Tellis *M*
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Fresco paintings of Visoki Decani Monastery - jewels of the 14th century art ==> 36 frescoes

Photo Galleries - Macedonian Orthodox Church *F* ==> 115 superb, high quality images

Macedonian Heritage1 - Hellenic Macedonia *F* ==> 92 Frescoes

Macedonian Heritage2 - Hellenic Macedonia *M*
==> 29 Mosaics

A World of Byzantine Art, Wall Paintings in Crete *F* - by Ben van Dongen

*F* Crete Tournet -- 17 frescoes and several island views. To see all frescoes, click on "More Photos" underneath the fresco of the Nativity, or click the link that follows

*F* Frescoes of the 12th - 20th Century ==> 95 frescoes ; also see Serbian Orthodox Church

*F* Ancient Russian Frescoes ==> 55 frescoes

*M* Mosaic of Celestial Jerusalem (1580) - Popal Chapel "Redemptoris Mater", Vatican.
Photograph given to Oleg G. Ulyanov for the exclusive publication on the site "Christianity : icon, mosaic, fresco... ". *New!*

Later Byzantine Art & Architecture (in Constantinople and the Balkans)
Icons, Frescoes and *M*    Beautiful Mosaics !

*F* Frescoes and Wall Painting in Late Byzantine Art *New!*

*F* Mani: A Guide and History (John Chapman) *New!* SUPERB !
Byzantine and Post Byzantine Churches decorated with Frescoes in Mani, Greece
- Mani Home Page (John Chapman) -
- Brief Introduction (Icons Explained) -

*  Pages above marked with an asterisk are part of the Belmont Index of Early Christian and Byzantine Image Pages

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Byzantine Frescoes & Mosaics - Elsewhere on this page
As previously mentioned, the links on this page connect you with the individual places where Frescoes and/or mosaics can be viewed.

Balkan States
     - Albania
     - Croatia
     - Macedonia - Ohrid - Skopje - Struga
     - Romania frescoes in most or all Romania's monasteries' painted churches
     - Serbia
     - Balkans, Unspecified Location

Greece - Athens - Crete - Kastoria - (Hell.) Macedonia - Mt. Athos - Thessaloniki - Unspecified

Italy - Cefalu - Monreale - Palermo - Ravenna - Rome - Torcello - Venice

Russia - Vologda - Unspecified Location

Ukraine   |   Georgia   |   Armenia

Turkey - Göreme - Constantinople

Middle East - Sinai (Egypt) - St. Catherine Monastery

Unspecified Location (entire page)

Exhibitions & Collections

FM Links to sites not referenced above

The Websites-Index
Additional byzantine mosaics and frescoes may be seen in the Icons Explained Websites-Index. Once on that site, click the FM column to sort the sites by frescoes (F) and mosaics (M), then select one. (The links on that page need to be updated.)

The Roman Catacombs

An easy way to see the Websites-Index, or any other Icons Explained web page, is to click the link for it below to the right. The page will be inserted inside an i-frame, and functions like any other webpage. Close the i-frame when finished, or leave it open -- it won't interfere. The i-frame can be dragged to another location on your screen. It will disappear when reloading the page.

For best results : First click Insert a page to position the page.

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